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Flashcards in Pharm 30 Part II Deck (20)
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1

MOA: carbohydrate analogues that bind avidly to alpha glucosidase, slowing the breakdown and absorption of of dietary carbohydrates such as dextrin and dissaccharides.

alphaglucosidase inhibitors

2

MOA: the classic anabolic hormone, insulin promotes carbohydrate metabolism and facilitates glucose, amino acid, and TG uptake and storage in liver, cardiac and skeletal muscle and adipose tissue

Exogenous Insulin

3

MOA: inhibit the Beta cell K/ATP pump at the SUR1 subunit, thereby stimulating insulin release and increasing circulating levels to levels that are able to overcome insulin resistance

Sulfonylureas and Meglitinides

4

MOA: Activates AMPK to block synthesis of FAs to inhibit hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis; increases insulin receptor activity and metabolic responsiveness in liver and skeletal muscle

Biguanides

5

MOA: co released with insulin , acts on receptors of the CNS to slow gastric emptying, reduce glucose and glucagon release and promote satiety

Pramlintide

6

MOA: enhance glucose dependent insulin release delay gastric emptying, inhibit glucagon secretion, decrease appetite by inhibiting degradation by DPP-4 inhibitors or agonizing GLP-1 receptor

Incretins

7

bind and stimulates PPARgamma, thereby increasing insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue liver and muscle

TZDs

8

binds to SUR1 subunit of K+/ATP channel in pancreatic Beta cells and stabalizes ATP bound open state of the channel so b cell membrane remains HYPERpolarized, decreasing insuling secretion

Diazoxide

9

modest increase in plasma TGs, aminotransferase levels should be monitered and is most useful for pts with postprandial hyperglycemia and for new-onset pts with mild hyperglycemia

alpha-glucosidases

10

rapid acting analogues of inslulin

lispro, aspart, glulisine

11

long - acting anlogues of insulin

glargine and detemir

12

major dange of insulin therapy ...

hypoglycemia in pts not taking in enough carbohydrates

13

mainstay of Tx for Type II diabetes

Sulfonylureas

14

can cause weight gain so better suited for nonobese pts, first generations have lower affinity than 2nd .

sulfonylureas

15

can decrease weight, GI distrbances, lactic acidosis

Metformin

16

less insulin is required when this drug is used

pramlintide

17

can be used in combination with sulfonylureas and metformin to improve glucose control

GLP-1 analogues

18

adjust dose in kidney, monitor digoxin levels

DPP-4 inhibitors (sitagliptin --> digoxin levels

19

does not induce hypoglycemia, restricted to pts who did not respons to other antidiabetic medications

TZDs, (rosiglitazone for non-responsive)

20

when oral/ VI glucose is not possible use this, it also depends on a hepatic store of glycogen to be useful

Glucagon