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Flashcards in Pharm: cognitive disorders Deck (27):
0

Define dementia

chronic global and irreversible deterioration of cognition

1

Risperidone

Atypical antipsychotic used to treat agitation and aggression in Alzheimer dementia. Also treats hallucinations and delirium.

MOA: D2 antagonist

SE: minimal

2

Olanzepine

Atypical antipsychotic used to treat agitation and aggression in Alzheimer dementia. Also treats hallucinations and delirium.

MOA: D2 antagonist

SE: minimal

3

Quetiapine

Atypical antipsychotic used to treat agitation and aggression in Alzheimer dementia. Also treats hallucinations.

MOA: D2 antagonist

SE: minimal

4

Sertraline

Treats depression in Alzheimer dementia

MOA: SSRI

5

Fluoxetine

Treats depression in Alzheimer dementia

MOA: SSRI

6

Haloperidol

Typical antipsychotic used to treat delusions in Alzheimer dementia.
Also treats delirium by decreasing agitation and improving psychotic symptoms.

MOA: DA inverse agonist

SE: extrapyramidal disorders (akinesia, difficulty stopping motions)

7

Donepezil

Used to improve cognition in Alzheimer dementia.

MOA: AChase inhibitor

SE: cholinergic side effects (diarrhea, N/V)

8

Rivastigmine

Treats mild to moderate Alzheimer dementia. Must be taken with food. Also treats Lewy Body Dementia

MOA: AChase inhibitor

SE: cholinergic side effects (diarrhea, N/V)

9

Galantamine

Slows the decline of cognition in Alzheimer dementia.

MOA: AChase inhibitor

SE: cholinergic side effects (diarrhea, N/V), anorexia

10

Memantine

Slows deterioration of Alzheimer dementia but no effect on cognition.

MOA: NMDA antagonist

SE: delusion, confusion, hallucination

Can be used with AChase inhibitors in advanced AD.

11

Name a prophylaxis to prevent Alzheimer dementia.

Vitamin E supplementation

12

How do monoclonal Abs treat Alzheimer dementia?

Help degrade amyloid plaques. Ineffective in frontotemporal dementia because there are no plaques.

13

Paroxetine

Treats anxiety, eating disorders in patients with frontotemporal dementia.

MOA: SSRI

14

Name 4 drug classes used to treat vascular dementia.

1. ACE inhibitors (-prils)
2. Statins
3. Anti-platelets (clopidogrel)
4. Calcium channel blockers (nifedipine, nimodipine)

15

Dedanosine, Stavudine, Zalcitabine

Reverse transcriptase inhibitors used in HIV dementia

16

Midazolam, Flunitrazepam

Drugs used post-surgery to induce amnesia.

17

Differentiate anterograde and retrograde amnesia.

Anterograde: inability to "A"cquire new memories.

Retrograde: inability to "R"etrieve old memories

18

Treatment for amnesia.

Supportive, no drugs

19

Define delirium

Acute, transient fluctuating disturbances in attention, and consciousness level.

20

Lorazepam

Benzodiazepine used to treat delirium.

21

Methylphenidate

Management of ADHD

MOA: inhibits NE and DA re-uptake channels

SE: may cause weight loss, insomnia, addiction, mania

22

Dextroamphetamine, Lisdexamfetamine

Treat ADHD and narcolepsy

MOA: increase NE and DA transmission in brain

SE: myocardial infarct, tachycardia, seizures, anaphylaxis

23

Atomoxetine

Treats ADHD

MOA: NE re-uptake inhibitor

SE: prolong QT-interval, priapism, sudden cardiac death

24

Desipramine

ADHD management

MOA: NE and 5HT re-uptake blockers

SE: fatigue, dizziness, somnolence, cardiac complication

25

Guanfacine

Treatment of ADHD (clonidine can also be used)

MOA: alpha 2 agonist

SE: bradyarrhythmias, peeling skin, AV block

26

Bupropion

Smoking cessation assistance, bipolar disorders and ADHD.

MOA: inhibits NE and DA re-uptake

SE: agitation, arthralgia, xerostomia, Steven-Johnson syndrome