Ophthamology: Eye Exam Flashcards Preview

Clinical Neuro Exam 1 > Ophthamology: Eye Exam > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ophthamology: Eye Exam Deck (16):

The first and most important component of a basic eye exam.

Visual Acuity


What is the uvea or uveal tract?

Iris, ciliary body, choroid


What is astigmatism?

The refracting power of cornea is different in one meridian than another. Causes the image to be distorted.


What is presbyopia and how is it corrected?

The lens loses its ability to accomodate (become more convex). Corrected with lenses like glasses or contacts.

CANNOT correct with refractive laser surgery!


Why is it very important to test the visual acuity of children before age 7?

The visual cortex of the brain finishes developing around age 7. Children that have undiagnosed visual impairment will not fully develop this region of the brain and have permanent visual deficits in the brain that cannot be corrected.


What is the main reason physicians perform an "upper lid eversion" test?

To look for foreign bodies


When is an "anterior chamber depth test" used?

Test for open angle glaucoma before dilating the pupils.

-Glaucoma will push the irises outward toward the cornea. Light shined laterally thru the cornea will create shading on the iris if the iris is buldging from increased ocular pressure.


What are Fluorescein strips used for?

Test for corneal abrasions


What is the visual acuity test?

The ability to resolve a certain size object at a given distance.


What visual acuity is considered legal blindness.?

(also a visual field of less than 120 degrees)


Why would you palpate lymph nodes during an eye exam?

If the patient presents with a red eye they might have an infection and swollen lymph nodes.


What does the "Afferent Pupillary Defect" or "Marcus Gunn" test evaluate?

Compares the signaling speed of the two optic nerves.


What is the reason to have a patient focus on a distant object during the pupillary light exam or the ophthalmoscopy exam?

Focusing on a distant object dilates the pupil.


What angle should a physician approach the eye during an ophthalmoscopy exam?

15 degrees temproal (lateral). This is because the optic nerve is located 15 degrees nasal (medial) to the midline or fovea.


What is the red reflex?

Reflection of light off the retina.
-shadows or interruptions of the reflection can indicate retinal pathology, cataracts, or dirt on contact lenses


What kind of ophthalmoscopic finding can indicate glaucoma?

An cup:disc ratio >0.5.

The physiologic cup is the bright yellow dot in the middle of the optic disc (nerve). This is normally about half the diameter of the optic disc. In glaucoma, the cup can dilate and be greater than half the diameter of the optic disc.