Flashcards in Neurology: Neuro Exam Correlation Deck (28):
What is asterixis?
Flapping tremor of the hand when the wrist is extended (stopping traffic position). Associated with metabolic encephalopathy.
What is dystonia?
Abnormal sustained posture that often leads to twisting of the body.
What is tardive dyskinesia?
Movement disorder with repetitive and involuntary movements that are slow onset.
What is akathisia?
Syndrome of restlessness manifesting as an inability to sit still.
Describe broca's aphasia in terms of fluency, comprehension, and repitition.
Non-fluent, comprehension spared, repetition impaired
Describe wernicke's aphasia in terms of fluency, comprehension, and repitition.
Fluent, comprehension impaired, repetition impaired
Describe global aphasia in terms of fluency, comprehension, and repitition.
All functions have deficits
Conductive aphasia is damage to the peri-sylvian connections between broca's and wernicke's and usually results in paraphasic errors. Name and describe the two types of paraphasic errors.
1. Phonemic: substitution of similar sounding words in normal speech
-ex. saying "pish" when you mean "fish"
2. Semantic: substituting a simlar word in normal speech
-ex. saying "ink" when you mean to say "pen" or saying "taxi" when you mean to say "car"
Describe transcortical motor aphasia in terms of fluency, comphrehension and repitition.
Non-fluent but comprehension and repetition are spared.
Describe transcortical sensory aphasia in terms of fluency, comprehension and repitition.
Fluent, no comprehension, but repetition is spared.
Describe transcortical mixed aphasia in terms of fluency, comprehension and repitition.
Everything is impaired except for repetition
Describe anomic aphasia.
Inability to name the word for a particular item.
What can cause unilateral vs. bilateral anosmia?
Unilateral: trauma, tumor
Bilateral: trauma, smoking, virus, allergy
Describe the presentation of Foster-Kennedy Syndrome. (4 things)
Syndrome due to frontal lobe tumors
1. Anosmia: ipsilateral side
2. Optic Atrophy: ipsilateral eye
3. Central Scotoma: loss of middle visual field of ipsilateral eye
4. Papilledema: contralateral eye
Each result from optic nerve compression, olfactory tract compression, increased intra-cranial pressure
What is anisocuria?
Unequal pupil size
What is hippus?
Normal brief oscillations of pupil size in response to light changes
What is a Marcus Gunn pupil?
Afferent pupillary defect.
One eye responds to the light reflex slower than the other. Can be due to optic nerve or retinal disease.
What is an Adie's Pupil?
Dilated pupil due to loss of parasympathetic innervation to the iris. Accommodation is spared.
What is an Argyll Robertson Pupil and what commonly causes it?
Pupil that constricts for accommodation but doesn't react to light stimuli.
Caused by Neurosyphilis (prostitutes carry syphilis)
Edinger Westphal lesion (MS or other demyelinating disease)
What is one important condition that is associated with Horner Syndrome that a physician would want to rule out?
Common CN IV palsy symptoms.
Contralateral head TILT
Caused by trauma
Common CN VI palsy symptoms.
Ipsilateral head TURN
Caused by increased intracranial pressure
Pneumonic to remember the nystagmus direction with CN VIII caloric testing.
Cold water: opposite nystagmus
Warm water: same side nystagmus
What is "-paresis"?
Weakness, diminished motor strength
What is "-plegia"?
Which primitive reflex is NEVER normal in adults?
What lesion would be suspected in a patient that walks on their heals?
Ant. tibialis lesion