Path: Neoplasms Flashcards Preview

Clinical Neuro Exam 1 > Path: Neoplasms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Path: Neoplasms Deck (22):
1

Describe the location and age group associated with fibrillary astrocytomas.

Found in cerebral cortex gray matter NOT well circumscribed.

Found in adults (3rd or 4th decade)

2

Describe the location and age group associated with a glioblastoma.

Found in cerebral cortex gray matter, WELL circumscribed.

Seen in older patients

3

Describe the location and age group associated with a pilocytic astrocytoma.

Found in the cerebellum

Seen in young children

4

Describe the symptoms associated with a brainstem glioma and the age group that most commonly develops them.

Dysphonia, ataxia, facial paralysis, extraocular eye muscle weakness,

Seen in young children (first 2 decades)

5

Describe the location and age group associated with oligodendriogliomas.

Found in the cerebral hemisphere white matter. Associated with calcifications.

Seen in young to middle aged adults.

6

Describe the location and age group associated with ependymomas.

In children: located near 4th ventricle, can lead to hydrocephalus

In adults: located in the spinal cord

7

What is the name for the ependymoma that forms in the filum terminale?

Myxopapillary Ependymoma

8

Describe the location and age group associated with colloid cysts.

Located in the roof of the 3rd ventricle resulting in a non-communicating hydrocephalus.

Seen in young adults.

9

Describe the location and age group associated with a central neurocytoma.

Located in lateral and 3rd ventricles.

Seen in young adults.

10

Describe the location and age group associated with medullablastomas.

In children: located in vermis of cerebellum

In adults: located in lateral medullaru region of cerebellum

11

If a child presents with gait problems and vertigo, what are the two tumors on the DDx and how do you distinguish them?

1. Pilocytic Astrocytoma
2. Medullablastoma

Biopsy

12

What is the most common primary intracranial neoplasm found in immunocompromised patients?

Primary CNS lymphoma

13

Describe the location and age group associated with primary CNS lymphomas.

Seen in the cerebral hemispheres (supratentorial) and can spread across the corpus callosum.

Seen in patients usually over 60 years

14

Describe the location and age group associated with craniopharyngeomas.

Seen above sella turcica. Compresses pituitary gland and optic chiasm leading to endocrinopathies and tunnel vision.

Bimodal age distribution:
-young (10-14 yrs.)
-old (7th decade)

calcifies (just like oligodendriogliomas)

15

Most common sites where metastatic brain tumors originate.

Lung, breast, skin, kidneys, GI

16

What is a paraneoplastic syndrome and name the 5 most common syndromes.

Host immune system reacts to an invading pathogen that ressembles CNS or PNS tissue and the resulting defense attacks the host tissue.

-eye movement disorders
- limbic system
-cerebellar degeneration
- Lambert-Eaton
- sensory neuropathy

17

Most common schwannoma.

Acoustic Neuroma (CN VIII)

18

Describe von Hippel Lindau Disease.

Autosomal Dominant hemangioblastoma that arises in the cerebellum or retina.

Can result in polycythemia due to dysregulation of erythropoietin.

19

von Hippel Lindau Disease results in an increased risk of developing which 2 conditions?

1. Renal Cell Carcinoma
2. Pheochromocytoma

20

What is Tuberous Sclerosis and what are the two major signs and symptoms?

Autosomal dominant disease with growth of multiple benign neoplasms in the cortex.
Occurs mostly in children.

Results in:
-mental retardation
-seizures and epilepsy

21

What are Lisch Nodules?

Melanocytic hamartomas that form in the iris in patients with Neurofibromatosis.

22

What is a common complication of Neurofibromatosis type 2?

Development of Acoustic Neuromas.