Neurology: Aging Flashcards Preview

Clinical Neuro Exam 1 > Neurology: Aging > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neurology: Aging Deck (17):
1

What is the primary cause of age-related presbycusis?

Degeneration of hair cells in the organ of corti

2

What is one normal somatosensory deficit in the elderly?

Decreased vibratory sense in legs

3

What reflex can be normally absent in the elderly?

Achilles Reflex

4

What 3 systems need to be integrated for proper balance and gait?

1. Vision
2. Posterior Columns
3. Vestibular System

5

Describe the palmomental reflex and how it relates to neurology as patients age.

Primitive reflex that is controlled by the temporal lobe but is suppressed by the frontal lobe as infants reach the toddler stage.

Consists of a twitch of the chin when stroking the palm of the hand.

Can manifest again in the elderly.

6

Describe the snout reflex and how it relates to neurology as patients age.

Primitive reflex that is controlled by the temporal lobe but is suppressed by the frontal lobe as infants reach the toddler stage.

Involves pursing of the lips when lightly tapped with a tongue blade.

Can manifest again in the elderly.

7

Describe the suckling reflex and how it relates to neurology as patients age.

Primitive reflex that is controlled by the temporal lobe but is suppressed by the frontal lobe as infants reach the toddler stage.

Involves stimulation of the cheek followed by an ipsilateral suckling attempt.

Can manifest again in the elderly.

8

Describe the grasp reflex and how it relates to neurology as patients age.

Primitive reflex that is controlled by the temporal lobe but is suppressed by the frontal lobe as infants reach the toddler stage.

Involves stimulation of palm of the hand followed by flexion of the digits.

Never considered normal..

9

Condition that can lead to manifestation of the frontal release signs (primitive reflexes).

Alzheimer Disease

10

What are some mechanisms that can lead to hypothermia in the elderly?

-decreased metabolic rate
-decreased muscle mass and fat to produce heat
-decreased ability to vasoconstrict and conserve heat

11

What are some mechanisms that can lead to hyperthermia in the elderly?

-reduced sweating
-decreased ability to vasodilate peripheral vessels to dissipate heat

12

Why should great caution be taken when prescribing sleep medication to the elderly?

Can lead to falling and injury.
(the elderly often get enough sleep but don't realize it because the accumulate sleep throughout the day and not all during the night, ex. napping)

13

Name 3 cognitive causes of falling.

1. Apraxia
2. Normal pressure hydrocephalus
3. Multi-infarct

14

Name 4 vestibular causes of falling.

1. Drugs (aspirin, antibiotics, diuretics)
2. Trauma
3. Surgery
4. Ménière’s disease (inner ear disease leading to vertigo)

15

Name 3 proprioceptive causes of falling.

1. Neuropathy (diabetes)
2. Myelopathy (cervical spondylosis, B12 def.)
3. Spinal Stenosis

16

What is spondylosis?

Degenerative osteoarthritis between vertebrae often pinching the foramina where nerves and blood vessels enter and exit the vertebral canal.

17

What is the most effective prevention of falling in the elderly population?

Exercise