Practice Quiz Unit 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Practice Quiz Unit 3 Deck (35):
1

Peptidoglycan

Both gram+ and gram-.
Located in cell wall. Gram+ cells have very thick cell wall due to peptidoglycan.

2

Teichoic Acids

Gram+.
Attaches cell wall to membrane.

3

Lipopolysacharride (LPS)

Gram-.
Located in outer membrane.

4

Outer Memrane

Gram-

5

Periplasmic Space

Gram-.
Located between two membranes.

6

Porin Proteins

Gram-.
Located in outer membrane and form transmembrane channels that allow passage of hydrophilic molecules.

7

Lipid A

Gram-.
Toxic portion of lipopolysaccharide.
Component of out membrane.

8

O Antigen

Polysaccharide antigen located in lipopolysaccharide.

9

H Antigen

Flagellar antigen.

10

Beta Lactam Antibiotics

More effective in cells during logarithmic growth phase. Targets newly forming peptidoglycan

11

Quinolone

Targets DNA gyrase and DNA topoisomerase (?).

12

Coagulase

Promotes deposition of fibrin and walls off S. aureus.

13

Infection

Microbe enters into relationship with host.

14

Pili

Bacterial structure most commonly involved in mediating adherence of bacteria to human cells.

15

Enterococcus Spp.

Gram+. Forms chains.
Mostly likely to be found as part of normal bowel flora.

16

Clostridium difficile

Associated with antibiotic use due to antibiotic resistance. Causes diarrhea.
Part of normal flora w/o causing disease.
GI disease related to toxin production.

17

McConkey Agar

Allows growth of gram- bacteria only.

18

Lactose Fermenting Bacteria (when grown on McConkey agar)

E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae

19

Gram Stain

Adheres to peptidoglycan, which makes thick cell wall in gram+ cells.

20

Genetic Recombination

Allows bacteria to express different antigenic forms of pili.

21

Bacteriophage Converion (Lysogenic Conversion)

Mechanism of phage mediated transfer. Process where bacteria incorporates phage DNA that confers a new phenotypic trait into own genome. Allows diptheriae to express diptheria toxin.

22

Klebsiella pneumoniae

gram- rod

23

Glycocalyx

Virulence factor most associated with Staph epidermis

24

Transformation

Naked strands of DNA are incorporated into bacterial genome. Possible in both gram+ and gram- bacteria.

25

Generalized Transduction

Mechanism of phage-mediated transfer. Gene transfer mediated by a bacteriophage, where any segment of donor phage (bacterial?) genome is passed into another cell.

26

Bacterial Conjugation

Form of genetic transfer that is dependent upon contact between donor and recipient cells. Usually mediated by certain types of bacterial plasmids.

27

Virulence Genes

Are often expressed only under conditions of low iron.
May be obtained in complex transposons, during bacteriophage conversion, or in the acquisition of plasmids.

28

Lytic Infection

Phage multiplication leading to host cell lysis.

29

Transposition

DNA sequence that can change its position within the genome.

30

prophage

Consists of phage DNA which is linearly inserted into host cell genomes where it becomes passively replicated as part of host bacterial chromosome.

31

Insertion Sequence Transposon

Encode transposase. Inactivate genes into which they are transposed or turn on expression of adjacent genes.

32

Complex Transposons

Similar to regular transposons but carry additional genes such as those encoding antibiotic resistance, toxins, or other virulence factors.

33

Endotoxin

LPS from cell walls of gram- bacteria

34

Exotoxin

Toxin secreted by bacteria.

35

Enterotoxin

Exotoxin that acts in GI system.