Unit 4 General Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 4 General Deck (30):
1

antigenic drift

Gradual change in amino acid sequence of flu on H or N surface antigens.

2

antigenic shift

Occurs in A type flu only. Occurs when novel H or N gene segment is introduced to humans.

3

Pandemic Criteria

-emergence of new flu subtype
-virus must infect humans and cause serious illness
-virus must have sustained human to human transmission and spread easily among humans

4

positive sense RNA virus

can be directly translated

5

negative sense RNA virus

requires RNA-dependent RNA polymerase for replication

6

dsRNA virus

requires RNA-dependent RNA polymerase for replication

7

plaque assays

measure infectivity of a sample

8

reverse transcriptase is required for what type of virus?

+ ssRNA virus with DNA intermediate

9

latent viral infection

initial infection followed by asymptomatic periods with occasional reactivation

10

cytotoxic T cells

-adaptive immune defense
- associated with killing virally infected cells
-CD8+

11

dsDNA virus

-conventional transcription and translation

12

gapped circular dsDNA

-translated into regular dsDNA, then to RNA then to protein
-RNA is reverse transcribed to make DNA for next virus?
-hepatitis B virus

13

ssDNA

-made to dsDNA
-transcribed to RNA and madd to protein
-also replicated into DNA for next virus

14

dsRNA

-encodes RNA dependent RNA polymerse (RdRp)
-can be translated into protein

15

ss(+)RNA

-translated directly into protein
-encodes RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)
-ex. SARS, yellow fever, hep C, HIV

16

ss(-)RNA

-encodes RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)
-NOT translated directly to protein
-translated into +RNA then into protein

17

ss(+)RNA with DNA intermediate

-+ssRNA is never used as a message
-ssRNA is converted to dsDNA with reverse transcriptase
-dsDNA intermediate integrates into host genome and is permanent (provirus)

18

Innate TLRs involved in antiviral response

TLR3 (dsRNA), TLR7 (viral RNAs, synthetic ligands), TLR9 (unmethylated CpG)

19

innate intracellcular restriction factor antiviral responses

-APOBEC
-TRIM5
-TLRs (3, 7, 9)
-helicases

20

innate anti-viral defense cells

-mononuclear phagocytes
-dendritic cells
-NK cells
-granulocytes

21

innate antiviral cytokines

-IFNs, IL1, TFNa, IL6, IL12, IL18

22

innate antiviral chemokines

-IL8, IP10, MIP1a
-chemical that will attract other cells

23

Innate Defense Mechanisms

-barriers
-intracellular restriction factors
-interferons
-anti-viral cells
-cytokines
-chemokines

24

innate interferons

-IFNs (type 1, type 2, jakstat, PKR (dec. protein synth), OAS (degrade mRNA))

25

adaptive antiviral cells

-B cells
-T cells
-macrophages
-hepatocytes

26

tissue tropism

-certain viruses prefer certain tissues over other

27

virulence

-ability of infection to cause disease

4 Types
-affect ability of virus to replicate
-modify host defense mechanisms
-facilitate virus spread
-directly toxic to host cells

28

acute local viral response

-short incubation times (1-3 days)
-IgA
-cold and diarrhea
-epithelial infection
-high likelihood of reinfection

29

acute systemic viral response

-longer incubation time (10-20 days)
-IgA and IgG
-low likelihood of reinfection

30

latent viruses

-HSV- dorsal root ganglia
-HPV-basal epithelial cells
-EBV-B lymphocytes
-VZV
-virus for MS?