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1

what are mesangial cells?

specialised smooth muscle cells that support the glomerulus and regulate blood flow and GFR

2

how is the GBM charged?

negatively

3

what is the anion gap ?

difference between total cations and total anions

4

what charge are cations and anions?

cations = +
anions = -

5

can negatively charged particles such as albumin pass through the GBM?

no

6

what substance does baroreceptors control the release of ?

ADH

7

what are the specialised cells in the afferent arteriole called?

juxtaglomerular cells

8

where is the most Na reabsorbed in the nephron?

PCT

9

what ion channel is present in the ascending limb ?

Na/K/2Cl triple symporter

10

what is Ca reabsorption under the control of?

PTH

11

what is Na reabsorption under the control of?

aldosterone

12

where in the nephron does pH and K regulation occur?

medullary collecting duct

13

what channels does water pass through in the cortical collecting duct?

aquaporin 2- channel

14

what paraneoplastic effects can renal cancers have?

EPO - polycythaemia
Renin - HTN
ACTH - cushings
PTHrP - hypercalcaemia

15

give an example of carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used for glaucoma ?

acetazolamide

16

what affect does carbonic anhydrase inhibitors have on the kidneys ?

decreases bicarbonate reabsorption

17

give an example of a loop diuretic?

furosemide

18

what is the mechanism of action of thiazide diuretics ?

inhibit NaCl in DCT

19

what is the mechanism of action of loop diuretics ?

inhibit Na/K/2Cl symporter in thick ascending limb

20

what is the mechanism of action of K sparing diuretics ?

Spiro: aldosterone antagonist

􏰁Amiloride: blocks DCT/CD luminal Na channel

21

what is a side effect of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors ?

drowsiness
renal stones
metabolic acidosis

22

what is a side effect of thiazide diuretic ?

hypokalaemia
hyperglycaemia
increased urate

23

what condition is contra indicated with thiazide diuretics ?

gout

24

what two molecules can give a false positive for haematuria ?

myoglobin, porphyria

25

what molecule can give a false positive for proteinuria ?

bence jones proteins

26

what are causes of proteinuria?

DM
minimal change
membranous GN
amyloidosis
SLE
HTN
UTI

27

when is creatinine synthesised?

during muscle turn over

28

what is urea produced form and in what cycle?

produced form ammonia by liver in ornithine cycle

29

what would an isolated increased urea suggest?

hypo perfusion
dehydration

30

state some post renal causes of renal disease ?

􏰁 Stone
􏰁 Neoplasm
􏰁 Inflammation: stricture
􏰁 Prostatic hypertrophy
􏰁 Posterior urethral valves
􏰁 Infection: TB, schisto
􏰁 Neuro: post-op, neuropathy