Flashcards in Printed notes Deck (108)
what are mesangial cells?
specialised smooth muscle cells that support the glomerulus and regulate blood flow and GFR
how is the GBM charged?
what is the anion gap ?
difference between total cations and total anions
what charge are cations and anions?
cations = +
anions = -
can negatively charged particles such as albumin pass through the GBM?
what substance does baroreceptors control the release of ?
what are the specialised cells in the afferent arteriole called?
where is the most Na reabsorbed in the nephron?
what ion channel is present in the ascending limb ?
Na/K/2Cl triple symporter
what is Ca reabsorption under the control of?
what is Na reabsorption under the control of?
where in the nephron does pH and K regulation occur?
medullary collecting duct
what channels does water pass through in the cortical collecting duct?
aquaporin 2- channel
what paraneoplastic effects can renal cancers have?
EPO - polycythaemia
Renin - HTN
ACTH - cushings
PTHrP - hypercalcaemia
give an example of carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used for glaucoma ?
what affect does carbonic anhydrase inhibitors have on the kidneys ?
decreases bicarbonate reabsorption
give an example of a loop diuretic?
what is the mechanism of action of thiazide diuretics ?
inhibit NaCl in DCT
what is the mechanism of action of loop diuretics ?
inhibit Na/K/2Cl symporter in thick ascending limb
what is the mechanism of action of K sparing diuretics ?
Spiro: aldosterone antagonist
Amiloride: blocks DCT/CD luminal Na channel
what is a side effect of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors ?
what is a side effect of thiazide diuretic ?
what condition is contra indicated with thiazide diuretics ?
what two molecules can give a false positive for haematuria ?
what molecule can give a false positive for proteinuria ?
bence jones proteins
what are causes of proteinuria?
when is creatinine synthesised?
during muscle turn over
what is urea produced form and in what cycle?
produced form ammonia by liver in ornithine cycle
what would an isolated increased urea suggest?