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Flashcards in Psychologist And Their Contributions Deck (56):

Charles Darwin

Theory of evolution, survival of the fittest-origin of the species


John Watson

Founder of behaviorism - did the study of generalization


Little Albert

Watson's study on the generalization of fear. Conditioning subject it be afraid


Alfred Adler

Neo Freudian, believed that childhood social not sexual tensions are crucial for personality formation


Carl Jung

People had conscious and unconscious awareness - two layers of unconscious archetypes: personal/collective


Gordon Allport

Three levels of traits:
1. Cardinal trait-it is the dominant trait that characterizes your life
2. Central trait-one commune to all people
3. Secondary trait-it surfaces in some situations and not in others


Albert Ellis

Rational Emotive Therapy-focuses on altering client's patterns of irrational thinking to reduce maladaptive behavior and emotions


Albert Maslow

Hierarchy of needs-needs at the lower lever dominate an individual's motivation as longs as they are unsatisfied. Once these needs are adequately met, the higher needs occupy the individual's attention


Carl Rogers

Humanistic psychology-the theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth


B.F. Skinner

Operant conditioning-techniques to manipulate the consequences of an organism's behavior in order to observe the effects of subsequent behavior. (Skinner box)


Ivan Pavlov

Classical conditioning-an unconditional stimulus naturally elicits a reflexive behavior called an unconditional response. But with repeated pairings with a neural stimulus, the neutral stimulus will elicit the response (dog salivation)


Noam Chomsky

Disagreed with Skinner and said there is an infinite number of sentences in a language. He said that humans have an unborn ability to develop language


Jean Piaget

Four-stage theory of cognitive development: Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational. He said that two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth-assimilation & accommodation


Erik Erikson

People evolve through 8 stages over their life span. Each stage marked by psychological crisis that involves confronting "who am I"


Lawrence Kohlberg

His theory states there are 3 levels of moral reasoning and each level can be divided into 2 stages: pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional. His theory focuses on moral reasoning rather than overt behavior


Carol Gilligan

She maintained that Kohlberg's work was developed only observing boys and overlooked potential differences between the habitual moral judgements of men and women


James Lange Theory

It asserts that the perception of emotions is our awareness of our psychological response to emotion arousing stimuli. Ex: sight of coming car/pounding heart/fear


Phineas Gage

First persons to have a frontal lobotomy. Gave psychology information on part of the brain that is involved with emotions and reasoning


Hans Eysenck

Personality is determined to a large extent by genes. He used the terms extroversion/introversion


S. Schacter

To experience emotions 1. Must be physically aroused 2. Must cognitively label arousal (know the emotion before you experience it)


Mary cover jones

Systemic desensitization


Benjamin Whorf

His hypothesis is that language determines the way we think


Robert Sternberg

Triarchic theory of intelligence
1. Academic problem solving
2. Practical
3. Creative


Howard Gardner

Theory of multiple intelligences


Albert Bandura

Observational learning-it allows you to profit immediately form the mistakes and successes of others. His experiment had adult models punching BoBo dolls and then observed children whom watched this exhibit many of the same behaviors


E.L. Thorndike

Law of effect-(the relationship between behavior and consequences) the principle that behavior followed by favorable consequences becomes more likely. Behavior follows by less liked consequences becomes less likely


Alfred Binet

General IQ tests. A Frenchman designed a test that would identify slow learned in need of remedial help. It was not that valuable in America as it was too culture bound


Lewis terman

Revised binet's IQ test and established norms for American children


David Weschler

He established an intelligence test especially for adults. It become the WAIS (Weschler intelligence test for adults)


Charles Spearman

He found that specific mental talents were highly correlated. He concluded that all cognitive abilities showed a commons core which he labeled "g" for general ability


H. Rorschach

He developed one of the first projective test, the inkblot rest. The subject reads the inkblots and projects to the observer aspects of their personality. It uses 10 standardized inkblots


Philip Zimbardo

Conducted the famous Stanford prison experiment. It was conducted to study the power of social roles to influence people's behavior. It proved people's behavior depends to a large extent on the roles they are asked to play


David Rosenhan

He with a number of people form different walks of life conducted a hospital experiment to test the diagnosis of hospitals make on new patients. He also wanted to see the impact on the behavior on being a patient. He proved that once you are diagnosed with a disorder, your care wouldn't be very good in a mental hospital setting


Simon Asch

Study on conformity. His experiment had a subject unaware of his situation, test to see if he would confirm if all the member of the for up have an incorrect answer


Stanley milgram

Conducted a study on obedience when he had a subject shock a patient to the extent that they would be seriously injuring the patient


Kurt lewin

A German refugee who escaped nazi oppression. He designed an experiment to investigate the effects of different leadership styles on group functions. He wanted to find out if people were more productive under 3 different leadership styles: autocratic, laissez-faire, democratic. This is the study when he had the children of activities henry the 3 conditions. The democratic style proved to be the most productive as was expected


Harry Harlow

Studied theory of attachment in infant Rhesus monkeys


William Sheldon

The theory that linked personality to physique on the grounds that both governed by genetic endowment. Endomorphic (large), mesomorphic (average), ectomorphic (skinny)


Sigmund Freud

Psychoanalytical theory that focuses on the unconscious (ID, ego, superego)


Karen Horney

Critical of Freud's theories. She said that personality is continually mold by current fears and impulses, rather than being determined solely by childhood experiences and instincts


Martin seligman

Learned helplessness is the giving up reaction, the quitting response that follows from the belief that whatever you do does not matter. The woman in Schindler's list who explains to Schindler that no matter what she does she receives the same punishment


H. Ebbinghas

The first to conduct scientific studies on forgetting: first, a rapid loss followed by a gradual declining rate of loss



Did a study of the activities of neurons in the visual cortex



Trichromatic theory of color vision. He said there are 3 types of color receptors in the eye


Clark Hull

Drive theory-it maintains that the goal of all motivated behavior is the reduction or alleviation of a drive state. It is the mechanism through which reinforcement operates


Walter b. Cannon

He believed that the gastric activity in an empty stomach was the sole basis for hunger. Did an experiment by inserting balloon in subjects stomach


Broca's Area

The left frontal lobe that directs muscle movement involved in speech. He did his studies with a subject who could only speak one word, "tan". The person damaged in this area has speech that makes sense but has difficulty speaking


Wernicke's Area

An area of the left temporal lobe involved language understanding. The person damaged I this areas uses correct words but they do not make sense


Ernest Weber

He pioneered the first study on just noticeable difference. It became Weber's law; the JND between stimuli is a constant fraction of the intensity of the standard stimulus. Ex: the bigger or more intense the standard stimulus, the larger the increment needed to get a noticeable difference. Room with 10 angles vs. One with 30 candles


Fechner's law

It states that the magnitude of a sensory experience is proportional to the number of JND's that the stimulus causing the experiences above absolute threshold



Her theory proposes that the terminally I'll pass through a sequence of 5 stages: denial, anger/resentment, bargaining with god, depression, acceptance


Robert Zajonc

Mere exposure effect. Is is possible to have preferences without inferences and to feel without knowing why


Henry Murray

He stated that the need achieve varied strength in different people and influenced their tendency to approach success and evaluate their own performances. He devised the TAT (thematic appreciation test) along with Christiana D. Morgan. Subjects are asked to generate stories in response to ambiguous picture. Ex: the person resting against the park bench


David McClelland

He devised a way to measure H. Murray's theory. He is credited with developing the scoring system for the TAT's use in assessing achievement motivation, not for the TAT itself


Paul Ekman

The theory that facial expressions are universal


Frances Galton

Maintained that personality and ability depend almost entirely in genetic inheritance (human traits are inherited)