Unit 6: Learning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 6: Learning Deck (56):
1

classical conditioning

a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events

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Ivan Pavlov

behaviorism - the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without references to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)

dog experiment

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neutral stimulus

a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning

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unconditioned stimulus

a stimulus that unconditionally - naturally and automatically - triggers a response

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unconditioned response

an unlearned, naturally occurring response to an unconditioned stimulus

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conditioned stimulus

an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response

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conditioned response

a learned response to a previously neutral stimulus

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acquisition

in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response.

in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response

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higher-order conditioning

a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus.

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extinction

the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced

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spontaneous recovery

the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response

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generalization

the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses

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discrimination

the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus

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John Watson

human emotions an behaviors are mainly a bundle of conditioned responses

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Little Albert Experiment

Associating fear of loud noises to white rats and other furry animals

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Operant conditioning

a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher

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B.F. Skinner

developed a behavioral technology that revealed principles of behavior control

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reinforcement

any even that strengthens the behavior it follows

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shaping

proceure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desire behavior

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positive reinforcement

increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcer; any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response

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negative reinforcement

increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli; any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response

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primary reinforcer

an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need

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conditioned reinforcer

a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; aka a secondary reinforcer

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continuous reinforcement

reinforcing the desire response every time it occurs

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partial (intermittent) reinforcement

reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement

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fixed-ratio schedule

every so many; reinforcement after every nth behavior

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variable-ratio schedule

after an unpredictable number; reinforcement after a random number of behaviors

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fixed-interval schedule

every so often; reinforcement for behavior after a fixed time

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variable-interval schedule

unpredictably often; reinforcement for behavior after a random amount of time

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punishment

an event that tends to decrease the behavior it follows

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positive punishment

administer an aversive stimulus

ex: spray water on a barking dog

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negative punishment

withdraw a rewarding stimulus

ex: take away a teen's driving privileges

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taste aversion

associating events with taste

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latent learning

learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

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insight

a sudden realization of a problem's solution

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intrinsic motivation

a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake

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extrinsic motivation

a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishmnet

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coping

alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods

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problem-focused coping

attempting to alleviate stress directly - by changing the stressor of the way we interact with that stressor

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emotion-focused coping

attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs relate to one's stress reaction

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learned helplessness

the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events

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external locus of control

the perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fate

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internal locus of control

the perception that you control your own fate

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self-control

the ability to control impulses and delay short-term gratification for greater long-term rewards

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Bandura's bobo doll experiment

showing children adults attacking the bobo doll and them placing them in a room with the bobo doll to see how they treat the doll

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observational experiment

learning by observing others; also called social learning

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modeling

the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior

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prosocial behavior

positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior

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antisocial behavior

negative, aggressive behavior

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Learning

The process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors

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Law of effect

Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely

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Aversive conditioning

Type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nauseas) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)

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Extinction

The diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced

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Reflex

A simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response

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Cognitive map

A mental representation of the layout of one's environment. Ex: after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it

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Discriminative stimulus

A stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement