Unit 5: Stages of Conciousness Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Unit 5: Stages of Conciousness > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 5: Stages of Conciousness Deck (28):
1

Circadian rhythm

the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle

2

Sleep

periodic, natural loss of consciousness - as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation

3

REM sleep

rapid eye movement sleep; a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active

4

NREM sleep

non-rapid eye movement sleep; encompasses all sleep stages except for REM sleep

5

Alpha Waves

the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state

6

Delta Waves

the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep

7

Hallucinations

false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus

8

Melatonin

A hormone that is produced by the pineal gland and is intimately involved in regulating the sleeping and waking cycles

9

Sleep Theories

protection, recuperation, restoration, creative thinking, growth

10

Effects of Sleep Loss

depression, alertness, weight gain, immune system, reaction time, accidents

11

Insomnia

recurring problems in falling or staying asleep

12

Narcolepsy

a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times

13

Sleep Apnea

a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings

14

Night Terrors

a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during NREM-3 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered

15

REM Rebound

the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation

16

Dream

a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. Dreams are notable for hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it

17

Manifest Content

according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream

18

Latent Content

according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream

19

Dream Theories

wish fulfillment, information processing, physiological function, neural activation, cognitive development

20

Hypnosis

A social interaction in which one person (the subject) responds to another's person's (the hypnotist's) suggestions that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur

21

Stimulants

Drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, ecstasy, and methamphetamine) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions

22

Consciousness

Our awareness of ourselves and our environment

23

Psychoactive drug

A chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods

24

Hallucinogens

Psychedelic ("mind-manifesting") drugs, a such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input

25

Tolerance

The diminishing effect with regular use of the same does of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect

26

Depressants

Drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions

27

Opiates

Opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety

28

Biofeedback

A system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension