Unit 8: Motivation, Emotion, Stress Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 8: Motivation, Emotion, Stress Deck (36):
1

Motivation

a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior

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Incentive

a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

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Instinct Theory

focuses on genetically predisposed behaviors

instinct - a complex, unlearned behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species

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Arousal Theory

focuses on finding the right level of stimulation

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Drive-Reduction Theory

focuses on how out inner pushes and external pulls interact

the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

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Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active

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Abraham Maslow

hierarchy of needs; self-actualization

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Yerkes-Dodson Law

the principle that performance increases with arousal only up to a point, beyond which performance decreases

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Homeostasis

a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level

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Glucose

the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger

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Set Point

the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight

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Basal Metabolic Rate

the body;s resting rate of energy expenditure

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Obesity

associated psychological well-being, especially among women, and increased risk of depression

14

Sexual Response Cycle

the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson - excitement, plateau, orgasm, an resolution

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Refractory Period

a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm

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Sexual Dysfunction

a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal of functioning

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Testosterone

the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty

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Estrogens

sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to females sex characteristics. In nonhuman females mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity

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Emotion

a response of the whole organism, involving:
-physiological arousal
-expressive behaviors
-conscious experience

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James-Lange Theory

the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli

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Cannon-Bard Theory

the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers
-physiological responses
-the subjective experience of emotion

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Two-Factory Theory

the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must be physically arouse and cognitively label the arousal

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Polygraph

a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion

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Sympathetic Nervous System

mobilizes your body for action, directing your adrenal glands to release the stress hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine

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Parasympathetic Nervous System

gradually calms your body, as stress hormones slowly leave your bloodstream

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Facial Feedback Effect

the tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear, anger, or happiness

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Stress

the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging

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General Adaption Syndrome (GAS)

Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress i three phases - alarm, resistance, exhaustion

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Tend-and-Befriend Response

under stress, people (especially women) often provide support to others (tend) and bond with and seek support from others (befriend)

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Type A Personality

Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people

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Type B Personality

Friedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people

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Anorexia nervosa

An eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) maintains a starvation diet departed being significantly underweight

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Bulimia nervosa

An eating disorder in which a person alternates binge eating with pursing or fasting

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Intrinsic motivation

A desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake

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Sexual orientation

An enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex, the other sex, or both sexes

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Extrinsic motivation

A desire to perform a behavior to receive corresponding feelings such as fear, anger, or happiness