Unit 7: Memory Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Unit 7: Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 7: Memory Deck (53):
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Encoding

The processing of information into the memory system - for example, by extracting meaning

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Storage

The process of retaining encoded information out of memory storage

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Retrieval

The process of getting information out of memory storage

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Sensory memory

The immediate, brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

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Short-term memory

Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing before the information is stored or forgotten

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Long-term memory

The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences

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Working memory

A newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, an of information retrieved from long-term memory

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Explicit memory

Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"

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Effortful processing

Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

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Automatic processing

unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings

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Implicit memory

retention independent of conscious recollection

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Iconic memory

A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second

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Echoic memory

A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds

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Chunking

Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

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Mnemonics

Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices

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Spacing effect

The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice

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Shallow processing

Encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words

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Deep processing

Encoding semantically; based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention

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Hippocampus

A neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage

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Cerebellum

Plays a key role in forming and storing the implicit memories created by classical conditioning

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Basal Ganglia

Deep brain structures involved in motor movement, facilitate formation of our procedural memories for skills

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Flashbulb memory

A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

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Amygdala

Initiate a memory trace in the frontal lobes and basal ganglia and to boost activity in the brain's memory-forming areas

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Recognition

A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test

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Relearning

A measure of memory that assembles the amount of time saved when learning material again

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Priming

The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory

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Mood congruent

The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood

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Serial position effect

Our tendency to recall best the last (recency effect) and first items (primacy effect) in a list

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Anterograde amnesia

An inability to form new memories

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Retrograde amnesia

An inability to retrieve information form one's past

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Proactive interference

The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information

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Retroactive interference

The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information

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Convergent thinking

Narrows the available problem solutions to determine the single best solution

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Divergent thinking

Expands the number of possible problem solutions

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Algorithm

A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.

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Heuristic

A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms

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Insight

A sudden realization of a problem's solution; contrasts with strategy-based solutions

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Intuition

An effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious

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Context-Dependent Memory

Putting yourself back in the context where you experienced something can prime you memory retrieval

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Memory

The persistence of leaning over time through encoding, storage, and retrieval of information

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Long-term potentiation (LTP)

An increase in a cell's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory

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Recall

A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a full-in-the-blank test

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Prototype

A mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories

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Concept

A mental grouping of similar objects, events, idea, or people

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Morpheme

The smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word

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Phoneme

The smallest distinctive sound unit

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Availability heuristic

Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind

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Mental set

A tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past

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Representativeness heuristic

Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information

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Language

Our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning

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Confirmation bias

A tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence

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Cognition

All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

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Telegraphic speech

Early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram ("go car") using mostly nouns and verbs