Unit 10: Personality Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 10: Personality Deck (32):
1

Psychoanalytic Theory

Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions

2

Free Association

in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing

3

Unconscious

according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware

4

Id

a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification

5

Ego

the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain

6

Superego

the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations

7

Psychosexual States

oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital

8

Repression

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories

9

Psychodynamic Theory

modern-day approaches that view personality with a focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood experiences

10

Projective Tests

a personality test, such as the Rorschach, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics

11

Thermatic Apperception Test

a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes

12

Rorschach Inkblot Test

the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to indentify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots

13

Humanistic Theory

view personality with a focus on the potential for healthy personal growth

14

Self-Actualization

according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential

15

Unconditional Positive Regard

according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person

16

Self-Concept

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"

17

Trait Theory

a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports

18

Personality Inventory

a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits

19

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes

20

Big Five Personality Factors

CANOE
-conscientiousness: organized, careful, disciplined
-agreeableness: soft-hearted, trusting, helpful
-neuroticism: anxious, insecure, self-pitying
-openness: imaginative, prefers variety, independent
-extraversion: sociable, fun-loving, affectionate

21

Social-Cognitive Approach

views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits (including their thinking) and their social context

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Reciprocal Determinism

the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment

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Defense mechanisms

The ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality

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Personality

An individual's characteristics pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

25

Transference

The patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)

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Collective unconscious

Carl jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history

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Oedipus complex

According to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealous and hatred for the rival father

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Self-efficacy

One's sense of competence and effectiveness

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Temperament

A person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

30

Fixation

According to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved

31

Internal locus of control

The perception that you control your own fate

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External locus of control

The perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fate