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Flashcards in Pulmonary Deck (162)
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the ventilatory system is subdivided into zones of ventilation

conducting zones

transitional and respiratory zones


what is the conducting zones

trachea and terminal bronchioles

considered anatomic dead space


functions of the conducting zone

air transport humidification warming particle filtration vocalization immunoglobulin secretion


what is the transitional respiratory zones

bronchioles alveolar ducts and alveoli


functions of the transitional and respiratory zones

gas exchange surfactant production molecule activation and inactivation blood clotting regulation and endocrine function


more then ____ million alveoli provide the surface for gas exchange between lung tissue and blood



characteristics of the alveoli

thin walled
surface for gas exhcnage
pore of kohn - surfactant


what is surfactant

resistance to expansion of the ling cavity and alveoli increases during inspiration from the effect of surface tension


surfactant consists of a ____

lipoprotein mixture of phospholipids proteins and calcium ions produced by alveolar epithelial cells that reduces surface tension, this reduces the energy required for alveolar inflation and deflation


ficks law of diffusion states

that the rate of transfer of a gas through a tissue is directly proportional to the partial pressure differential between the two sides tissue surface area a diffusion constant and inversely proportional to the tissue thickness


volume of gas diffused is proportional to

partial pressure
surface area
diffusion constant


volume of gas diffused is inversely proportional to

the thickness of the tissue through which the gas is moving


what are static lung volumes

tidal volume
inspiratory reserve volume
expiratory reserve volume
total lung capacity
residual lung volume
forced vital capacity
inspiratory capacity
functional residual capacity


total lung capacity =



phases of inspiration

diaphragm contracts, flattens, and moves downward toward the abdominal cavity

elongation and enlargement of the chest cavity expands the air in the lungs causing its intrapulmonic pressure to decrease to slightly below atmospheric pressure

lungs inflate as the nose and mouth suck air inward

finishes when thoracic cavity expansion ceases, causing equality between intrapulmonic and ambient atmospheric pressure


during exercise the scaleni and external intercostal muscles between the ribs contract causing

the ribs to rotate and lift up and away from the body


inspiratory action _____ during exercise when the diaphragm ____ the ribs swing upward and the sternum thrusts outward




athletes often bend forward at the waist to facilitate breathing following exercise because

promotes blood flow back to the heart

minimizes antagonistic effects of gravity on the usual upward direction of inspiratory movements


during rest and light exercise represents a passive process of air movement out of the lungs resulting from

natural recoil of the stretched lung tissue and relaxation of the inspiratory muscles


what are the phases of expiration

sternum and ribs drop diaphragm rises decreasing chest cavity volume and compressing alveolar gas so air moves from respiratory tract to atmosphere

ends when the compressive force of expiratory muscles ceases and intrapulmonic pressure decreases to atmospheric pressure


diring exercise internal intercostal and abdominal muscles act powerfully on the ribs and abdominal cavity to

reduce thoracic dimensions

by reducing the dimensions exhalation becomes more rapid and extensive


what is tidal volume

air moved during inspiratory or expiratory phase of each breathing cycle 0.4-1L of air per breath


what is inspiratory reserve volume

inspiring as deeply as possible following a normal inspiration 2.5-3.5L above inspired tidal air


what is expiratory reserve volume

after a normal exhalation continuing to exhale and forcing as much as a possible from the lung 1-1.5L


what is forced vital capacity

total volume of air voluntarily moved in one breath includes TV plus IRV and ERV

4-5L in young men and 3-4 L in young women


what is residual lung volume

air volume in the lungs after exhaling as deeply as possible


what is the average for residual lung volume

0.8-1.2L for collage aged women 0.9-1.4L for collage aged men and increases with age


what does the residual lung volume allow

an uninterrupted exchange of gas between the blood and alveoli to prevent fluctuations in blood gases during phases of the breathing cycle


RLV plus FVC constitutes ___

total lung capacity


effects of previous exercise on RLV

RLV temporarily increases from an acute bout of either short term or prolonged exercise due to

closure of the small peripheral airways

increase in thoracic blood volume