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Flashcards in Energy Deck (247)
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1

what comes out of beta oxidation

NADH, FADH2

2

for each 18 carbon fatty acid molecule you make what

147 molecules of ADP phospholated to ATP during beta oxidation

3

longer fatty acid chains go through beta oxidation more times and cut off ___ carbons each time

2 carbon chain

4

to run the citric acid cycle do you need glucose if you have fats and proteins

yes you need a little bit of glucose to run the citric acid cycle

5

takes about 30seconds for oxidative phosphorylation to turn on ___%

50%

6

the grade of a vo2 max test (when the incline increases or when you increase speed)

this increases the work needed

7

every time you change the grade in a vo2 max

your oxygen kinetics turns up every time the work increases but it takes a little bit of time so there is a lag

8

faster increase in vo2 in trained state;

increase tight coupling
more mitochondria
increased cardiac output

9

how do you fuel the work if your oxygen does not keep up

anerobic
have to use other energy pathways
energy debt and has to be payed by phosphocreatine and eventually oxidative phosphorylation turns on to make way more ATP it just takes some time to turn on

10

mitochondria can only burn at their maximal speed of their

enzymes

11

fick equation

how much oxygen is delivered and how much is used

12

when vo2 max happens

you either cant deliver anymore oxygen
or
you cant (Muscles cant) use any more oxygen
or
both

13

lactate stays relatively low in a trained person (don't have to go into anerobic glycolysis earlier) why

trained person has a bigger cardiac output maybe have some more capillaries so they are able to be delivered more oxygen and they are able to use it faster and better
delay when they start making lactate

14

trained people are able to make more lactate then untrained people why

trained people have more mitochondria and better vo2maxs

have more enzymes; glycolytic enzymes! (because bigger muscles)

if youre use to having a lot of lactate so you are used to the pain so you can push through it more

have more lactate dehydrogenase

15

is the lactate threshold is different or the same as the ventilatory threshold

different

16

recovery after vo2 max

it takes time to restore your oxygen debt so it takes longer to pay it back so you must do light exercise after intense exercise to repay the debt and not pass out

17

how long does It take to pay back an oxygen debt

at this point your oxidative phosphorylation is going super fast because it takes time to slow down so this oxygen debt can be payed back quickly

can be payed back in 2-4 MINS

unless you are doing super intense exercise for a super long time

18

what is a calorie or kcal

a measure of heat, expresses a foods energy value

19

1 kcal equals the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of

1kg of water 1degree Celsius

20

what is the British thermal unit

1 BTU = quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1lb of water 1 degree F

21

what is a direct calorimetry

burring food in a bomb calorimeter permits the direct quantification of foods energy content (measured as heat transfer)

22

heat combustion

heat liberated by oxidizing a specific food

23

what are the average gross energy values (heat combustion) of carbs, lipids, protein

carbs= 4.2 kcal/g
varies with arrangement of carbohydrate molecule atoms

lipid= 9.4 kcal/g
varies with structural composition of molecules fatty acids

protein= 5.65 kcal/g
affected by protein type and relative N2 content

24

what is Awater general factors

provides useful estimate of the net energy value of typical foods a person consumes

25

what are the average Atwater values

carbs= 4
lipid= 9
protein= 4
alcohol= 7

26

the energy actually available to the body; energy intake is influenced by the __

proportion of food consumed that are actually digested and absorbed (coefficient of digestibility)

27

what is the average coefficient of digestibility is for carbs, lipids. and proteins

97% for carbs
95% for lipids
92% for proteins

28

___ can influence the coefficient of digestibility by altering the speed at which foods pass through the digestive track

dietary fiber

29

____ are not fully digested in the gut , which is seen as coefficient of digestibility of ____% for legume-based protein and ___% for animal based protein

proteins

78% for legume based

97% for animal based

30

calories represent heat energy regardless of food source which means

caloric equality
300kcal of ice cream is equal to 300kcal of French fries ect.