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Flashcards in Metabolism and Energy Deck (37)
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1

what is metabolism

the set of chemical reactions that happen in living organisms to maintain life

2

metabolism is usually divided into what two categories

catabolism
anabolism

3

define catabolism

breaks down organic matter;. for example to harvest energy in cellular respiration

4

define anabolism

uses energy to construct components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids

5

energy metabolism occurs via ___ production pathways

ATP

6

energy (ATP) demand is set by the activation of muscle contraction

1) myosin ATPase type (the fiber type) and SERCA protein type
- MHC 1 or MHC IIx ect
- SERCA1a or SERCA2a

2) the peak force and mechanical nature of contraction
- isometric, isotonic ect

7

when you start to do work your muscles use energy (ATP) at a rate that matches the work load demand of the activity. ATP demand is set by

the activation of muscle contraction

8

typically the amount of ATP need to perform a standard workload is similar or different between trained or untrained individuals

similar between trained and untrained individuals

9

what is ATP homeostasis

the balance of energy utilized by cellular ATPases and energy produced by metabolic pathways

10

at rest ATP utilization =

0.01 umol ATP/g muscle/second

11

during exercise ATP utilization =

10umol ATP/g muscle/second

12

the net depolarization of ATP in muscle rarely goes below ___% why?

30
because ATP utilization pathways are tightly coupled to ATP metabolic pathways

13

what are the three ways ATP is created (3 delivery systems)

1) high energy phosphate transfer (anaerobic pathways )

2) glycolysis (anaerobic pathway)

3) oxidative phosphorylation (aerobic pathways)

14

does high energy phosphate transfer use O2

no

15

what is high energy phosphate transfer

transfer of a phosphate group from phosphocreatine to ADP to regenerate ATP

16

does glycolysis use O2

no

17

what is glycolysis

degradation of glucose or glycogen (glycogenolysis)

18

what is oxidative phosphorylation

complete combustion of fats and or CHOs

19

does oxidative phosphorylation use O2

yes

20

high energy phosphate transfer is anaerobic ____

alactic

21

what are the steps of high energy phosphate transfer

ATPase
creatine kinase
adenylate kinase
AMP deaminase

22

what is the ATPase reaction

ATP +H2O converts through ATPase to ADP +Pi +H + ATP

23

what is the creatine kinase reaction

ADP +PCr + H ATP + Cr(PCr stores 3-4x greater then stored ATP)

24

what is the adenylate kinase reaction

ADP + ADP ATP + AMP

25

AMP deaminase reaction

AMP ---> IMP + NH3

26

what are the 2 segments of glycolysis

energy investment

energy generation

27

glycolysis can power about ___ seconds of contraction

30 seconds

28

if you start with glycogen how many ATP used in the energy investment stage of glycolysis is used

1

29

what are the three stages of oxidative phosphorylation

1) formation of acetyl-CoA
2) oxidation of acetyl groups
3) oxidation of NADH and FADH2 in the electron transport chain

30

explain the formation of acetyl-CoA

from carbohydrates via glycolysis or from fats via beta-oxidation or in extreme conditions from amino acids