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Flashcards in Metabolic Rate (After Midterm) Deck (191)
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what is the oxygen transport system

pulmonary ventilation

hemoglobin concentration

blood volume and cardiac output

peripheral blood flow

aerobic metabolism


what are cardiovascular adaptations to exercise training over a prolonged period of time

increase ejection

increase contractility

increased blood volume


what are the two types of muscle fibers

slow twitch

fast twitch


what are slow twitch fibers (what type is it)

type 1

low glycolytic capacity
aerobic capacity
30-40% increase in enzyme concentration in krebs cycle and beta oxidation
capillary density


what are fast twitch fibers

type 2

atp and cp concentration are about 60-70% . type 2
higher rates of atp production are aided by about 30% . mak ck


what is the difference between type 2a and type 2x

type 2a
- med glycolytic and aerobic capacity
- fast oxidative glycolytic

type 2x
- highest glycolytic capacity
- fast glycolytic


muscle fiber and MHC are not the only factors that influence muscle performance

if endurance is the goal, MHC it would be ideal if all else was equal

if speed was the goal, MHC 2a or 2x would be ideal if all else was equal

an unequal state would be (how it affects how efficient their running is)
- biomechanics of movement


bigger motor nerons

turn on slower


if you want maximal force of a muscle what motor nerons do you want

a massive rate coding of ALL motor neurons


if you want to create force in a motor unit and fire one motor neuron then

it is an all or none principle they all turn on


trainability of aerobic system at the muscle level

oxygen utilization

after training
- krebs cycle enzyme succinate dehydrogenase increases 133%!
- muscle fibers fast twitch has a small decrease and the slow twitch has a small increase
- glycolytic enzymes PFK has no change but phosphorylase increases 60%
- and mitochondria number increases 103% and the volume increases 272%


what are the three methods to determine the human energy expenditure

direct and indirect calorimetry

doubly labeled water

heart rate


all of the bodys metabolic processes result in ___ production



the rate of heat production operationally defines the rate of

energy metabolism


what is the basic unit of heat measurement



what are the direct calorimetry methods

human calorimetry
airflow calorimetry
water flow calorimetry
gradient layer calorimetry
storage calorimetry


why is the direct calorimetry not practical

large expense and resource


indirect calorimetry as a closed system is used how

all energy releasing reactions in humans depend on oxygen use, so measuring oxygen consumption during physical activities provides an indirect yet accurate estimate of energy expenditure

participant breaths into and out of a closed system
- breath in 100% o2 from container (spirometer)
- canister of soda lime absorbs co2
- revolving drum; records o2 removed


indirect calorimetry as an open system works how

ambient air
- 20.93% oxygen
- o.o3% carbon dioxide
- 79.04% nitrogen

- volume

3 techniques
- bag technique
- computerized instrumentation (met cart)
- portable spirometry


what is the bag technique

an indirect open system calorimetry technique used how

air is collected in a large bag (douglas bag)
small saple is measured for gas concentrations


what is the portable spirometry

an indirect open system calorimetry technique

spirometer is small and is carries in a pack
air volume is metered
sample is collected to measure concentrations of gases


what is the RER

the respiratory exchange ratio is the ratio between the amount of carbon dioxide produced in metabolism and oxygen used to create energy from lipid and CHO fuel sources in the body


RQ is equal to

co2 eliminated / o2 consumed


the respiratory exchange ratio reflects the ratio of co2 produced to o2 consumed when factors other then food combustion alter the

exchange of 02 and co2 in the lungs as the ratio of gas exchange no longer reflects only the substrate mixture pf energy metabolism
(computed the same as RQ)


what is the RQ

the respiratory quotient

carb fat and protein require different amounts of 02 for complete oxidation of each molecules carbon and hydrogen atoms to the CO2 and water end products

describes the ratio of metabolic gas exchange


what is the RQ for carbs

because gas exchange during glucose oxidation produces a number of co2 molecules equal to the number of o2 molecules consumed


what is fats RQ

because fat catabolism requires more o2 in relation to co2 production


protein RQ

because proteins require more oxygen in relation to carbon dioxide produced


what is the doubly labeled water technique

to estimate total daily expenditure in free living conditions


what is the procedure of doubly labeled water

participant consumes water with a known concentration of stable isotopes of hydrogen and o2
labelled hydrogen leaves the body in sweat, urine, and pulmonary water vapor, labeled 02 leaves as both water and co2
differences between elimination rates of isotopes relative to the bodys normal levels estimate total co2 production