Q&A Thoracic Limb Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Q&A Thoracic Limb Deck (114)
1

Describe the clavicle in the dog and cat

Cat: separate, nonarticular bone; Dog:rudimentary or absent, embedded in brachiocephalicus m

2

What does the spine of the scapula divide?

Lateral scapula into infraspinous and supraspinous fossae

3

What is the acromion?

End of the spine of the scapula

4

What is the caudal projection of the acromion found in the cat?

Suprahamate process

5

What is the glenoid fossa and its function?

Shallow cavity of the scapula articulating with the humerus to form the shoulder joint

6

What is the supraglenoid tubercle and what is its function?

cranial process near glenoid cavity for the attachment of the biceps brachii muscle

7

What and where is the greater tubercle?

Projection located craniolateral to the head of the humerus-point of shoulder

8

What is the intertubercular (bicipital) groove?

the sulcus between the greater and the lesser humeral tubercles for the biceps brachii tendon

9

What is the condyle of the humerus?

Entire distal end of the humerus

10

What arises from the epicondyles of the humerus?

Lateral: extensors of the forearm; medial: epicondyle flexer

11

What foramen is found in the canine and feline humeri, and what passes through them?

Dog: supratrochlear foramen - nothing; Cat: supracondylar foramen - median n., and brachial vessels

12

What and where is the styloid process of the radius?

Distal pointed end of the radius, medial

13

What is the function of the olecranon? That is the common name for it?

Serves as a lever arm for the extensor muscle of the elbow; point of elbow

14

Name the depression of the ulna that articulates with the humerus and its proximal and distal ends

Trochlear notch (semilunar notch); proximal end= anconeal process; distal end = medial and lateral coronoid process

15

What and where is the styloid process of the ulna?

Distal end of ulna, lateral side

16

List the parts of the manus from proximal to distal

Carpus, metacarpus, digits (proximal, middle, distal phalanges and associated sesamoid bones)

17

What does the term carpus designate?

Carpal bones and compound joint formed by these bones Or the region between the metacarpal bones and the forearm

18

Name the bones of the carpus and indicate where they are in each row

Proximal row from medial to lateral = radial, ulnar, accessory carpal bones; Distal row = 1-4 medial to lateral

19

Which carpal bone is located laterally and palmarily and considered a landmark?

Accessory carpal bone

20

List the bones of each digit and their locations

Proximal, middle and distal phalanges (no middle in dewclaw), 2 proximal sesamoid bones (1 in dewclaw on palmar side of metacarpophalangeal joints), 1 dorsal sesamoid bone for each digit 1-4

21

What is the fingerlike structure covering the ungual process?

horny claw

22

What is the shelf of the distal phalanx covering the root of the claw?

ungual crrest

23

What is the digit that doesn't reach the ground? made up of P1,P3, 1 proximal sesamoid, and MtC1

dew claw

24

What is the configuration of the shoulder joint?

ball and socket joint (spheroidal)

25

What type of motion is allowed by the shoulder joint?

all movements but mainly flexion/extension

26

What protects the biceps tendon in the intertubercular groove?

Extension of the shoulder joint capsule acting as a tendon sheath

27

what stabilized the shoulder joint?

No true collateral ligaments, but infraspinatus tendon laterally and subscapularis tendon medially help stabilize it

28

What bones make up the elbow joint?

humeral condyle, trochlear notch of the ulna, head of radius

29

What type of joint is the elbow (cubital joint) and what action is allowed?

hinge (ginglymus) joint; compound joint; flexion and extension

30

what powerful ligaments bind sides of all joints of the limb except the shoulder?

lateral and medial collateral ligaments; limits movement to mainly flexion/extension

31

What type of joint is the carpus? what movement does it allow?

Compound/composite hinge joint; flexion and extension (also gliding and rotation)

32

List the joints of the carpus and the movement each allows

Antebrachial joint: mot movement of flexion and extension; middle carpal joint: less considerable flexion and extension; carpometacarpal joint: very little, mainly gliding; intercarpal joints: gliding

33

List the boundaries of the carpal canal

Carpal bones (covered by palmar carpal fibrocartilage), accessory carpal bone and flexor retinaculum (transverse carpal ligament)

34

List the joints of the digits

Metacarpophalangeal joints between meta-carpal bone and proximal phalanx; Proximal interdigital joint - between P1 & P2; Distal interdigital joint - between P2 & P3

35

What bones are located on the palmar side of the metacarpophalangeal joints?

2 parlmar sesamoids for digits 2-5, 1 for dewclaw

36

What ligament extends form proximal P2 to dorsal P3?

Dorsal elastic ligament, unique to carnivores

37

What flexor muscles effect the interphalangeal joints?

Proximal: DDF and SDF, Distal: only DDF

38

What is the function of the elastic dorsal ligament of a cats digits?

Oppose DDF, keep claw retracted

39

What local thickening of the deep fascia hold tendons in place?

Retinaculum

40

In which layer are the cutaneous muscles located?

in the superficial fascia

41

What is the function of the cutaneous muscles?

twitch the skin

42

List the different types of muscle and whether they are voluntary or not

Striated Skeletal muscle = voluntary, Cardiac muscle = involuntary; Smoot unstriated muscle = involuntary

43

What are the two attachments of skeletal muscles?

Origin (proximal and/or least movable) and insertion (distal and/or more movable)

44

What are the flat attachments of flat muscles?

Aponeuroses

45

What is the difference between tendons and ligaments?

Tendons = attach muscle to bone, ligaments = attache bone to bone

46

What do muscle actions depend on?

How they cross a joint, the number of joints crossed, and the shape of the joint

47

List 3 types of muscle attachments

Tendinous, Aponeurotic, Fleshy

48

Define extension and flexion

Extension: increases angle between bones; Flexion: decreases angle between bones

49

Define adduction and abduction

Adduction: move toward body; Abduction: moves away from body

50

Define supination and pronation

Supination: palmar surface dorsal; Pronation: palmar surface ventral

51

What is the movement of an extremity in a plane describing the surface of a cone?

circumduction

52

What muscles connect the thoracic limb to the head, neck and trunk?

Extrinsic muscles of the thoracic limb

53

Name five of the 8 extrinsic muscles of the thoracic limb

Trapezius, Omotransversarius, Brachiocephalicus, superficial and deep pectoral, latissimus dorsi, serratus ventralis and rhomboideus

54

Which extrinsic muscel supports the weight of the trunk?

Serratus ventralis - forms a sling for the trunk

55

What muscles originate and insert on the bones of the thoracic limb?

Intrinsic muscle of the limb

56

What muscles replace the collateral ligaments for the shoulder joint?

Subscapular, infraspinatus, supraspinatus, biceps brachii

57

What nerve enervates the infra- and supraspinatus mm

Suprascapular nerve

58

What is the common insertion of all four heads of the triceps brachii muscle?

Olecranon

59

Where does the biceps brachii muscle originate?

supraglenoid tuberosity

60

What nerve innervates the triceps and other extensors of the elbow, carpus and digits?

Radial nerve

61

How are the forearm muscles grouped?

Craniolateral - extensors and Caudal - flexors

62

Where do most of the extensors of the digits/carpus arise?

on or near the lateral epicondyle

63

What muscles arise/originate from the medial epicondyle of the humerus?

Caudal antebrachial muscles

64

What nerve innervates the extensors of the digits and carpus? what nerve innervates the caudal antebrachial muscles (flexors)

Radial n. = extensors; median and ulnar n = flexors

65

Where does the ADF and DDF insert? why is this clinically significant?

DDF- Distal phalanges; SDF - middle phalanges; Significance - DDF affects the distal interphalangeal joint SDF does not

66

Where are most of the vessels and nerves on the arm and why?

Medial side for protection

67

List the main arteries to the forelimb and their location

Subclavian - medial to first rib; Axillary - in axilla; Subscapular - along caudal scapula; Brachial - in arm; Common interosseous - last branch of brachial; median - in forearm; digital - in paw

68

What are the locations of the cephalic and accesory cephalic veins of the manus; where do they join and continue as cephalic vein?

Cephalic palmar paw; accesory cephalic-dorsal paw. they meet above the carpus to travel cranial on the forearm

69

Can the lymph nodes of the thoracic limb be palpated?

Axillary - no; Accessory if present yes and superficial cranial yes

70

How is the nervous system divided functionally and structurally?

Function - Somatic and Autonomic; Structure - CNS and PNS

71

Which function of the NS keeps the body in balance with its external environment? internal?

External - Somatic; Internal - Autonomic

72

What are the two parts of the CNS?

Brain and spinal cord

73

What are the parts of the PNS?

Cranial nerves, spinal nerves, ganglia

74

What are two impulses of the NS both somatic and autonomic?

Sensory (afferent) and Motor (efferent)

75

What nervous structures pass from the spinal cord to the periphery?

Spinal nerves (LMN)

76

Where do the spinal nerves leave the vertebral column?

Intervertebral foramen

77

What arises from the spinal cord to form a spinal nerve?

Ventral and Dorsal roots

78

What are the two main branches of spinal nerves? What do they carry

Dorsal and Ventral branches; mixed motor and sensory fibers

79

What areas do the ventral and dorsal motor branches of the spinal nerves supply motor innervation?

Ventral - muscles ventral to the transverse processes; Dorsal - muscles dorsal to the transverse processes

80

What spinal nerve branches supply sensation form the skin of the abdominal wall and back?

Dorsal - above transverse processes and upper flank; ventral the rest

81

List the components of a reflex arc

Stimulus, receptor, sensory (afferent) neuron, interneuron, motor (efferent) neuron, LMN, effector (target organ)

82

What two muscles does the suprascapular nerve innervate?

Supraspiantus and infraspiantus

83

What innervates the cutaneous trunci

Lateral thoracic nerve

84

What nerve innervates the flexor of the elbow and is necessary for weight bearing?

Radial nerve

85

What nerves does SS-MAR-MU stand for and from what areas of the brachial plexus do they arise?

SS - cranial; supraspinatus ans subscapularis; MAR - middle; musculocutaneous, axillary, radial; MU - caudal; median and ulnar

86

What nerves innervate the extensors and flexors of the forepaw?

extensors : radial n; Flexors ; median and ulnar

87

Where does the radial nerve become superficial and in danger?

laterally under the triceps brachii muscle

88

What are two cutaneous areas of the forepaw?

Dorsal paw; radial n, abaxial 5 (lateral) digit: ulnar n

89

What normal structures can be mistaken for lytic areas of the cortex?

nutrient foramina

90

What should be done if questions arise from radiographs of a limb?

take films of the opposite limb

91

The different views _____ different sides of bones

highlight

92

What does the lateral view highlight?

Cranial and caudal or dorsal and palmar/plantar surfaces of bones

93

What are radiographic landmarks for the medial side of the thoracic limb?

dew claw and radial carpal bone

94

what are landmarks for the lateral side of the thoracic limb?

spine of the scapula, greater tubercle, distal ulna, accessory carpal bone

95

what are caudal/palmar landmarks of the forelimb?

head of the humerus, olecranon, accessory carpal bone

96

what does craniocaudal or dorsopalmar view highlight?

medial and lateral structures of the limb

97

name two normal structures that can be mistaken for fractures in the forelimb

sesamoid bones of digits, lateral collateral ligament of elbow, anconeal process of ulna, accessory ossicle of caudal scapula

98

On what side of the limb is the accessory carpal bone?

lateral and palmar

99

What bone may be mistaken for a chip fracture of the carpus?

sesamoid of the oblique carpal extensor tendon

100

What is a pathological osseous outgrowth seen radiographically?

bone spur/osteophyte

101

What is an increase in the density of a bone?

Sclerosis

102

What is the destruction of a bone, seen as reduced density?

Lysis

103

What is luxation or dislocation?

complete loss of contact between articular surfaces of a joint

104

Define subluxation

partial loss of contact between articular surfaces of a joint

105

what is OCD - osteochondrosis?

defect in endochondral ossification: deeperlayer of cartilage die

106

Do you look for radiographic changes in the cartilage in OC?

No, you can't see it, check subchondral bone

107

list 2 of the 4 common sites of OCD lesions

1- shoulder;2- medial humeral condyle; 3- medial and lateral femoral condyle ;4 - proximal medial trochlea

108

What is the #1 site of OCD in a dog? Describe its appearance in contrast to normal

Caudal aspect of the head of the humerus; Normal looks smooth and round with no flattening; OCD looks flattened or cratering with subchondral bone sclerosis

109

What can the cats clavicle be mistaken for in lateral radiographs?

bone in espophagus

110

What can premature closure of either distal or proximal radial physis cause?

subluxation of the humeral-radial joint

111

Where is OCD of the elbow located?

medial condyle of the humerus

112

what is an ununited anconeal process?

failure of the anconeal process to unite with ulna by 6 months

113

what is fragmented medial coronoid process?

improper development and fragmentation of cartilaginous precursor

114

haw are the medial and lateral epicondyles of the humerus differentiated in a lateral radiograph?

Medial is squared and extend further caudally than the rounded lateral epicondyle