Quiz 10 - Endocrine Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Quiz 10 - Endocrine > Flashcards

Flashcards in Quiz 10 - Endocrine Deck (34):
1

overview of endocrine system

endocrine and nervous system cooperate together to maintain homeostasis
nervous - fast acting; specific
endocrine - slower, longer lasting effects

2

endocrine

- secretes hormone into the bloodstream
- no ducts
- glands are highly vascularized (great blood supply)
- secretions are hormones

3

exocrine

- secretes onto body epithelial surface
- secretions travel via ducts onto target organs
- secretions are usually fluids, lubricants and enzymes
- examples: sweat, sebum, saliva

4

endocrine cells

grandular secretory cells that release hormones

5

hormones

organized into four groups based on chemical structure:
- amino acid derivatives
- eicosanoids
- peptide hormones
- steroid hormones

6

peptide hormones

- amino acid chains (proteins)
- most hormones are peptides
- act much like a neurotransmitter receptor
- acts at the surface of the cell (on receptors)

7

steroid hormones

- cholesterol based (lipids)
- easily cross a cell membrane
- longer lasting effect
- act inside the cell
- activates or inhibits specific genes in nuclear DNA

8

3 mechanisms of Hypothalamus

- act as an endocrine organ itself by releasing hormones via posterior pituitary
- secretes regulatory hormones that control endocrine cells in anterior pituitary
- exerts direct neural control over adrenal gland

9

pituitary gland

located below hypothalamus, hangs off of infundibulum

10

posterior pituitary

controlled by nerves from hypothalamus
- produces ADH and oxytocin

11

target and effect of ADH

target - kidneys
effect - decreases urine secretion, vasoconstriction of blood vessels

12

target and effect of oxytocin

target - uterus; mammary glands
effect - lactation; labor contractions

13

anterior pituitary (function, secretion, target)

- controlled by the hypothalamus: regulates other endocrine glands
- secretion: hormones that regulate the growth and secretion
- target: other glands and numerous body tissues

14

7 hormones produces by anterior pituitary

- ACTH
- GH
- TSH
- prolactin
- FSH
-LH

15

ACTH

adrenocorticotropic hormone
activates adrenal cortex to produce glucocoricoids

16

GH

growth hormone
stimulates cell growth and replication (bone & muscle)

17

TSH

thyroid-stimulating hormone
targets thyroid gland

18

prolactin

stimulates and regulates breast tissue growth and milk production

19

gonadotropins

regulates sex organ activities

20

FSH

follicle-stimulating hormone
- promote oocyte development (via estrogen) in women
- stimulates sperm production in testes

21

LH

leutenizing hormone
- induces ovulation (via progesterone) in women
- stimulates androgens (testosterone) in men

22

thyroid gland

location/structure: anterior surface of trachea, largest purely endocrine gland in the body
produce/secrete: thyroid hormones (thyroxine and triiodothyronine) and C Cell hormone (calcitonin)

23

target and effect of thyroid hormones

target: almost all tissues of the body
effect: increase basal metabolic rate, increase O2 consumption, increase heat production, increase protein synthesis

24

target and effect of calcitonin

target: bone and kidney
effect: calcium retention

25

parathyroid gland (location, secretion, target, effect)

location - 4 pea-sized glands on posterior surface of thyroid, important for Ca homeostasis in human
secretion - parathyroid hormone (PTH)
target - bone, GI tract and kidneys
effect - increase Ca released into blood stream (bone), increase Ca absorption (GI), decreases Ca excretion in urine (kidney)

26

thymus gland (l, s, t, e)

location - posterior to sternum, rests on pericardial cavity
secretion - thymosin
target - lymphoid tissue
effect - increased lymphocyte production (immune system)

27

adrenal glands

location - attached to both kidneys
- outer = adrenal cortex
- inner = adrenal medulla

28

adrenal cortex

location - outermost layer (yellow due to lipids), produces more than 24 hormones called adrenocortical steroids, controlled by ACTH from the anterior pituitary

29

secretions of adrenal cortex

glomerulosa, fasciculata, reticularis

30

secretion, target and effect of glomerulosa

secretion - aldosterone
target - kidneys
effects - increase Na retention

31

secretion, target and effect of fasciculata

secretion - cortisol
target - liver and muscles
effects - increase glucose synthesis, increase glycogen formation

32

secretion, target and effect of reticularis

secretion - androgens
target - sex organs
effects - pubic hair development in adolescence, promote muscle mass and supports libido in women

33

location, secretion and effect of adrenal medulla

location - reddish-brown, due to high vascularity; controlled by SNS
secretion - epinephrine and norepinephrine
effect - increased cardiac activity, in creased blood pressure, release lipids from adipose tissue

34

pineal gland (l, s, t, e)

location - part of epithalamus, dorsal to hypothalamus; small, red, pinecone shaped
secretion - melatonin
targets - hypothalamus and anterior pituitary
effect - regulates circadian rhythms