Quiz8 - CNS: Brain cont. Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz8 - CNS: Brain cont. Deck (32):
1

basal nuclei (basal ganglion)

paired masses of cell bodies located deep inside cerebrum

2

functions of basal nuclei

- subconscious control and integration of SKM tone
- coordinate learned movement patterns
- process, integrate and relay information from cortex to thalamus

3

cuadate nucleus & putamen

coordination of arm and leg movements that occur during walking

4

globus pallidus

adjusts muscle tone in preparation for voluntary movement

5

amygdaloid body

integration center between limbic system, cerebrum and sensory systems; anger, danger and fear responses

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limbic system

important in emotions and memory

7

parts of limbic system

- fornix
- cingulate gyrus
- mamillary bodies
- hippocampus

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fornix

tract connecting hippocampus to hypothalamus

9

cingulate gyrus

allows shifting between thoughts and express emotions through gestures

10

mamillary bodies

contain motor nuclei that control reflex movements associated with eating (ex: licking, chewing, swallowing)

11

hippocampus

important in learning and storage of long-term memory

12

parts of diencephalon

epithalamus
thalamus
hypothalamus

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epithalamus

posterior portion contains pineal gland which produces melatonin (affects sleep cycle)

14

thalamus

- masses of nuclei
- relay center or "gateway" through which sensory information passes to cerebrum
- transfers information to correct part of cortex for localization and interpretation

15

hypothalamus

important autonomic nervous system center (important for homeostasis)

16

functions of hypothalamus

- subconscious control of skeletal muscles
- control of autonomic function (ex: blood pressure & rate)
- coordination between voluntary and autonomic functions
- production of emotions and behavior drives (ex: hunger & thirst)
- regulation of body temperature
- control of circadian rhythm - sleep/wake cycle
- secretion of hormone from pituitary gland

17

parts of brainstem

midbrain, pons, medulla
- attaches to spinal cord

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midbrain

mostly composed of tracts of nerve fibers

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parts of midbrain

- superior & inferior colliculi (corpora quadrigemmina)
- red nucleus
- substantia nigra

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superior & inferior colliculi (corpora quadrigemmina)

reflex centers for vision and hearing

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red nucleus

has numerous blood vessels; integrates information from cerebrum and cerebellum and directs involuntary motor commands of the limbs

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substantia nigra

involved in motor coordination; functionally linked to basal nuclei; produce dopamine (inhibitory neurotransmitters)

23

parkinsons disease

diseases involving degeneration of basal ganglia; neurons producing dopamine (in substantia nigra) are damaged

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symptoms of parkinson disease

- constant tremor at rest
- limited initiation of movements
- rigidity
- slowness in complex voluntary movements

25

pons

connect higher brain centers and spinal cord
- relay information between motor cortex and cerebellum
- contain nuclei for involuntary control of respiration

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medulla oblongata

merges into spinal cord; relay fiber tracts to appropriate brain regions; contains many nuclei of cranial nerves

27

what does the medulla oblongata control

- cardiovascular: force & rate of heart contraction
- respiratory: rate & depth of breathing

28

cerebellum

coordinates and fine-tunes ongoing movements of body parts and adjust postural muscles (maintain balance and equilibrium)

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functions of cerebellum

- adjust the postural muscles of the body
- programming and fine-tuning voluntary and involuntary movements

30

cerebellar dysfunctions

ataxia and dysmetria

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ataxia

unsteadiness or irregular patterns of movement

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dysmetria

inability to anticipate and stop a movement precisely