Quiz 7 - Nervous Tissue Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 7 - Nervous Tissue Deck (34):
1

overview of nervous system

- control and adjust the activities of other organs
- relatively swift and brief responses

2

two parts of nervous system

central nervous system and peripheral nervous system

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CNS

- brain and spinal cord
- integration, processing and command center

4

PNS

- nerves
- carries messages to and from CNS

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two different types of functions

afferent/sensory division or efferent/motor divison

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afferent/sensory division

nerve fibers that carry information from sense organs TO the CNS

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efferent/motor division

nerve fibers that carry information FROM the CNS

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where does efferent/motor division send information to

somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system

9

somatic nervous system

(voluntary) - skeletal muscles

10

autonomic nervous system

(involuntary) - cardiac and smooth muscles, glands

11

parasympathetic

"rest and digest" system

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sympathetic

"fight or flight" system

13

neurons

nerve cells - specialized to transmit electrical impulses

14

cell body

contains nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes and other organelles
- metabolic center of cell
- contains large nucleus and nucleolus

15

dendrites

stimulated by environment changes or the activities of other cells
- processes conduct impulses TO the cell body
- receives information from other neurons

16

axon

conducts nerve impulses (action potential) toward synaptic terminals

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axon hillock

tapering section of cell body from which axon arises; generates action potentials (electrical signal)

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conducting region

carries electrical signals in one direction toward synaptic terminals

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synaptic terminals

secrete neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) to another neuron or effector

20

neuralgia of CNS

"nerve glue"
- general functions: support, insulate and protecting neurons
- smaller than neurons - helper cells for neurons

21

ependymal cells

- line the central cavities of the brain and spinal cord
- usually assist in monitoring composition of and circulating cerebrospinal fluid

22

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

fluid circulated in the nervous system that transport dissolved gases, nutrients, wastes, etc.
- acts as 'cushion'

23

astrocytes

- most abundant, versatile and highly branched glial cells
- cling to neurons and capillaries

24

things astrocytes do

- maintain the blood brain barrier
- create 3-D framework for CNS
- repair damaged neural tissue
- guiding neuron development
- controlling interstitial environment

25

microglia

- small with spiny processes
- phagocytes that remove cell debris, wastes and pathogens

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oligodendrocytes

produce insulating myelin sheath around nerve fibers in CNS

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myelin

- fatty material that protects and insulates nerves
- speeds up transmission rate of nerve impulses
- makes nerves appear white

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neuroglia of the PNS

satellite cells
schwann cells
nodes of ranvier

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satellite cells

surround ganglia (cell bodies), regulate exchange of nutrient and waste products between neuron cell body and extracellular fluid (ECF)

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schwann cells

cells that form myelin sheath (neurolemma) around peripheral axons

31

nodes of ranvier

gaps in myelin sheath along axon
- impulses travel faster when fibers have a myelin sheath
- allows impulses to "jump" from node to node

32

white matter

cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers

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gray matter

mylinated fibers

34

differences between neuroglia and neurons

- glia cannot transmit nerve impulses like neurons
- glia retain ability to divide (unlike neurons)
- most brain tumors are gliomas
- there are more glia than neurons (5x as much as neurons)