Quiz 8 - Spine & Nerves Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 8 - Spine & Nerves Deck (31):
1

spinal cord

- spinal cord is enclosed within the vertebral column
- provides two-way communication to and from the brain
- can function with the brain or independently of it

2

anatomy of spinal cord

protection and coverings - epidural fat (between vertebrae and meninges)
fluid - CSF and interstitial fluid
bone - vertebral column

3

cross-sectional anatomy of spinal cord

gray matter
white matter
spinal roots

4

gray matter

consists of cell bodies, unmyelinated nerves and neuroglia
- dorsal horn
- ventral horn
- lateral horn

5

dorsal horn

somatic and visceral sensory nuclei

6

ventral horn

somatic motor neurons

7

lateral horn

somatic motor nuclei

8

white matter

consists of columns of nerves (funiculi) conveying either sensory tract (ascending tracts) or motor tracts (descending tracts)

9

spinal roots

dorsal root
dorsal root ganglion
ventral root
spinal nerve

10

dorsal root

sensory, afferent fibers

11

dorsal root ganglion

cell bodies of sensory fibers

12

ventral root

motor, efferent fibers

13

spinal nerve

formed by dorsal and ventral roots

14

peripheral nervous system (PNS)

all neural structures outside the brain and spinal cord (ex: sensory receptors, peripheral nerves and ganglia), provides links to and from external environemnts)

15

spinal nerves

bundles of axons enclosed by connective tissue
- sensory, motor or mixed

16

structure of PNS

endoneurium
fascicles
perineurium
epineurium

17

endoneurium

delicate layer surrounding individual axons

18

fascicles

a bundle of axon

19

perineurium

wraps fibers into bundles called fascicles

20

epineurium

tough fibrous layer surrounding several fascicles forming the nerve

21

31 pairs of spinal nerves

mixed nerves arise from spinal cord and supply all parts of the body (except head)
- named according to their point of tissue
cervical nerves (C1-C8)
thoracic nerves (T1-T12)
lumber nerves (L1-L5)
sacral nerves (S1-S5)
coccygeal nerves (C0)

22

spinal reflexes

- rapid, involuntary motor response to a stimulus
- usually does not require input from the brain

23

types of reflexes

autonomic reflexes
somatic reflexes
reflex arc

24

autonomic reflexes

visceral effectors: smooth and cardiac muscles or glands

25

somatic reflexes

skeletal muscle effectors

26

reflex arc

receptor
sensory neuron
integration center
motor neuron
effector

27

receptor

detects physical or chemical changes (stimuli)

28

sensory neuron

sends information from receptor to integration center

29

integration center

information processed in central nervous system

30

motor neuron

sends information from integration center to effector

31

effector

activated/inhibited by motor neuron