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Flashcards in Radioactivity Saftey Deck (15):
1

Radiation harms [ ]

Living cells

2

What are the 3 types of radiation?

Alpha, Beta and Gamma

3

Alpha, Beta and Gamma radiation will enter [ ] and collide with [ ]`

Living cells
Molecules

4

The collision inside cells, between radiation and molecules, causes [ ] which damages or [ ] the [ ]

ionisation
destroys
molecules

5

What do lower doses do to cells? (general)

Cause minor damage without killing the cell. This can give rise to mutant cells which divide uncontrollably (cancer).

6

What do high doses do to cells? (general)

Tend to kill cells, which causes radiation sickness if a lot of body cells all get hit at once.

7

What 2 things does the extent of the harmful effects depend on?

1) How much exposure you have to the radiation
2) The energy and penetration of the radiation, since some types are more hazardous than others

8

Outside the body, which types of radiation are the most dangerous? Why?

Beta (β - source) and Gamma (γ - source) because they can get inside the delicate organs whereas Alpha (α) is much less dangerous because it can't penetrate the skin

9

Inside the body, which types of radiation are the most dangerous? Why?

Alpha (α - source) because they do all their damage in a very localised area. Beta and Gamma are less dangerous because they mostly pass straight out without doing much damage

10

When conducting experiments, use radioactive [ ] for as short as time as possible so your [ ] is kept to a minimum

sources
exposure

11

How should you handle radioactive sources?

Never allow skin contact. Always handle with tongs. Hold the source at arm's length and keep it as far away from the body as possible. Keep the source pointing away from you and avoid looking directly at it.

12

Why should you handle radioactive sources in the proper way (listed in another question)/

This will decrease the amount of radiation that hits you, especially the alpha particles as they don't travel far in air.

13

Why use lead to protect us from exposure to radiation? Therefore how should you keep radioactive sources?

Lead absorbs all 3 types of radiation (though a lot is needed to stop gamma radiation). Therefore you should always keep radioactive sources in a lead box and put them away as soon as the experiment is over.

14

What to radiographers wear (Why?) and what precautions do they take?

Lead aprons and stand behind lead screens for extra protection because of its radiation absorbing properties.

15

When somebody needs an X-ray or [ ], only the area of the body that needs to be treated is exposed to [ ]. The rest of the body is protected with [ ] or other radiation [ ] materials

Radiotherapy
Radiation
Lead
Absorbing