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Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (107)
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1

Which airways have cartilage and which airways do not?

large airways- cartilage
small airways- non-cartilage

2

What decreases and increases surface tension in lungs?

decreased- saline filled lungs
increased - surfactant deficiency

3

Flow limitation

point where any increase in effort makes no increase in flow because airway can collapse

4

Pcritical is a marker of

tendency of airways to collapse

5

Three Factors that contribute to maximum flow rate

decreased Elastic recoil
Increase in Pcritical
Increase in R upstream

6

decreased expiratory flow rates seen in (3)

1- increased airway resistance
2- decreased elastic recoil
3- decrease in lung volume

7

RV is increased most in

obstructive airway disease (air trapping)

8

5 general categories of restrictive lung disease

neuromuscular disease
chest wall problems
pleural disease
loss of lung
interstitial lung disease

9

Efferent impulses in respiratory control from Cranial nerves

9,10,11,12

10

Length tension, a short muscle is a

weak muscle

11

energy consumption is via 2 factors in muscles

tension produced by muscle
velocity of shortening in muscle

12

two reasons resp muscles require more energy

-asked to do more
-at a mechanical disadvantage

13

Centriacinar Emph

enlarged resp bronchioles and normal distal ascini

14

panacinar emph

resp-->distal ascini all affected

15

Paraseptal emph

distal ascinus only
associated with bullae and pneumothroax

16

charcot-leyden crystals

degranulated eosinophil membranes found in asthma

17

curschmann spirals

whorls of shed epithelium in asthma

18

acute vs late phase asthma

acute- mast cell mediated
late phase- leukocyte mediated, tissue destruction

19

3 types of medications for COPD

B-agonists, Anticholinergic, Methylxanthines

20

when are glucocorticoids appropriate for COPD patients?

<50% FEV1 and freq exaccerbations

21

airway remodeling

increase in ECM

22

pulmonary arterial hypertension

pH when fundamental abnormality arises in pulmonary vasculature

23

2 ways that pulmonary arterioles dilate

passive- thin-walled and contain little muscle (so due to CO2)
active- release of EDRF/NO

24

ihibitors vs constrictors in PVR

inhibitors- prostacyclin, NO
vasoconstriction- thrmboxane A2, endothelin-1, 5HT

25

Pressure left atrium best estimated by

pulmonary wedge pressure

26

pulmonary artery pressure equation

Ppa= (CO x PVR) + PLa

27

two types of granulomatous ILD

sarcoidosis
hypersensitivity pneumonia

28

smoking related ILD

respiratory bronchiolitis ILD
desquamative interstitial pneumonia

29

first thing that happens in ILD

type 2 pneumocyte hyperplasia

30

3 ways lung can get fibrotic

fibroblast can get activated -->interstitum thicker

epithelial gets injured-->fibrin leaks out and fibroblasts pass through

granulomas