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Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (16):

What is rales or crackles?

Lung sounds produced by air passing over retained airway secretions. Heard on inspiration or expiration and may be defined as fine or coarse.


What is stridor and what is the cause?

High-pitched, harsh sound occurring during inspiration. Caused by an upper airway obstruction such as epiglottis.


What is the definition of rhonchi and what is the cause?

Low-pitched wheezing, snoring, or squeaking sound heard during auscultation of the chest? It is caused by partial airway obstruction such as mucus or other secretions.


What is diffusion?

The process by which gases move between the alveoli and pulmonary capillaries.


What is perfusion?

The circulation of blood through the capillaries.


What is ventilation?

The mechanical process of moving air in and out of the lungs.


What is the definition and cause of wheezing?

It's a continuous musical sound heard during expiration, caused by narrowing of the respiratory passageways.


What is atelectesis?

It's a collapsed or airless condition of the lung.


What is positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)?

It's a method of holding the alveoli open during expiration. PEEP reduces venous return to the heart and reduces cardiac output. The goal is to achieve adequate arterial oxygenation without using toxic levels of oxygen and without compromising cardiac output.

Monitor for undesired sides effects such as pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema, pneumothorax.


What is carbaminohemoglobin?

Molecule formed when hemoglobin and carbon dioxide combine


Describe Biot's (ataxic) respirations and name a cause?

Short breaths followed by long irregular periods of apnea. It is seen in increased intracranial pressure.


Describe Cheyne-Stokes respirations and name a cause?

Hyperventilation, separated by periods of apnea at the end of expiration. It's caused by brain stem injury seen in older patient's with terminal illness such as CHF..


Describe Kussmaul's respirations and name a cause?

Very deep, repetitive gasping respirations. Associated with metabolic acidosis in conditions such as diabetic ketoacidosis.


Describe central neurogenic hyperventilation and name a cause? Does this cause respiratory alkalosis or acidosis?

It is a rapid and deep respiration or hyperventilation. It is caused by strokes or injury to the brainstem. This causes respiratory alkalosis.


Describe apneustic respirations?

Prolonged inspiration followed by an inspiration pause. This is usually associated with brainstem injury, strokes, or central nervous system disease.


How does hyperventilation affect the body?

It blows off carbon dioxide, which is a vasodilator. Reduced carbon dioxide levels, therefore, allow cerebral vasoconstriction.