The Central Nervous System Flashcards Preview

Paramedic Class > The Central Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Central Nervous System Deck (33):
1

neuron

nerve cell

2

soma

cell body containing the nucleus and most of the metabolic machinery (mitochonderia ; parts of the organism other than the reproductive cells

3

dendrites

transmit electrical impulses to the the cell body; stimulated by environmental changes or the activities of the other cells

4

axons

transmit electrical impulses away from the cell body; conducts nerve impulse (action potential) away from the soma

5

synaptic terminals

affect another neuron or effector (muscle, gland, etc.)

6

acetylcholine

neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic and somatic (voluntary) nervous systems

7

norepinephrine

found in the synaptic terminals of sympathetic nerves

8

meninges

membranes covering and protecting the brain and spinal cord; consist of pia mater, arachnoid membrane, and dura mater

9

pia mater

Delicate innermost layer of the brain and spinal cord. Thin fibrous tissue that is impermeable to fluid. Allows blood vessels to pass through and nourish the brain.

10

arachnoid membrane

middle layer of the 3 menings (membranes) that surround the brain and spinal cord. Weblike structure between the dura mater and pia mater.

11

dura mater

outer most membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord

12

subarachnoid space

space between the pia mater and the arachnoid membrane

13

epidural space

space outside the dura mater

14

subdural space

space between the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane

15

cerebrospinal fluid

watery, clear fluid that acts as a cushion to protect these organs from physical impact

16

brainstem

mesencephalon (midrain), pons, and the medulla oblongate

17

cerebrum

*sensory and motor actions* / anterior and middle area of the cranium, containing 2 hemispheres joined by a structure called the corpus callosum

18

diencephalon (interbrain)

*involuntary actions - temperature regulation, sleep, water balance, stress response, emotions* / covered by the cerebrum, inside are the thalamus, hypothalamus, and limbic system

19

mesencephalon (midbrain)

*motor coordination and eye movement* / between the diencephalon and the pons

20

pons

*contains connections between the brain and spinal cord* / between the mid-brain and the medulla oblongata

21

medulla oblongata

*major centers for controlling respiration, cardiac activity, and vasomotor activity* / located between the pons and the spinal cord (marks the division between the spinal cord and the brain

22

cerebellum

*fine motor movement, posture, equilibrium, and muscle tone* / located in the posterior fossa of the cranial cavity, consisting of 2 hemispheres closely related to the brainstem and higher centers

23

speech

temporal lobe of the cerebrum

24

vision

occipital cortex of the cerebrum

25

personality

frontal lobes of the cerebrum

26

balance & coordination

cerebellum

27

sensory

parietal lobes of the cerebrum

28

motor

frontal lobes of the cerebrum

29

reticular activating system (RAS)

lateral portion of the medulla, pons, midbrain / sends impulses to and receives impulses from the cerebral cortex / diffuse system of interlacing nerve cells responsible from maintaining consciousness the ability to respond to stimuli

30

circle of Willis

blood flow to the brain provided by two systems, carotid system (anterior) & vertebrobasilar system (posterior) and join at the circle of Willis before entering the structure of the brain

31

afferent

sensory / fibers transmit impulses to the central nervous system from the body

32

efferent

motor / fibers carry impulses from the central nervous system to the body

33

dermatome

nerve root has a corresponding area of the skin which supplies sensation