agitation of the heart / often lethal disruption of the heart rhythm that occurs as a result of a blow to the area directly over the heart (precodial region), at a critical time during the cycle of a heart beat causing cardiac arrest
prolonged involuntary muscular contractions that may cause twisting (torsion) of body parts, repetitive movements, and increased muscular tone
dorsiflexion (to bend dorsally or toward the upper surface) of the great toe when the sole of the foot is stimulated / if the toe extends instead of flexes and the outer toes spread out, Babinski reflex is present / normally when the lateral aspect of the sole of the relaxed foot is stroked, the great toe flexes
LeFort fracture of skull
fracture involving more than one of the facial bones (maxillary, nasal, orbital, and/or zygomatic)
LeFort I fractures
blunt force injury directed below the maxillary alveolar rim in a downward direction
LeFort II fracture
blunt force injury to the lower or mid-maxilla and usually involve the inferior orbital rim
LeFort III fracture
blunt force injury to the nasal bridge or upper maxilla, involving the zygomatic arch
What is the most common cause of cardiopulmonary arrest in the trauma patient?
Acceptable locations for chest needle decompression are…
Directly over the top of the 3rd rib, mid-clavicular line /
What may affect the pulse oximetry reading?
Cyanide poisoning / High ambient light / Carbon monoxide poisoning
What is the FIRST priority in management of a trauma patient?
Control major external bleeding
In the absence of herniation syndrome, adult head injured patient should be ventilated at a rate of…
8 to 10 per minute
What assessment tools may assist in predicting patient deterioration for someone who otherwise appears stable?
Serum lactate levels and abdominal ultrasound.
Tourniquet application should be limited to less than…
The radial pulse disappears upon inspiration.
What is the correct orientation for inserting an intraosseous needle to the proximal tibia?
Medial to the midline, avoiding the growth plate.
Unequal pupils, typically a pre-existing
The name of a pre-existing condition of unequal pupils is called…
Another name for skin is...
The outermost layer of the skin with 5 of its own layers
The outmost layer of the epidermis consisting of non-living cells.
Granulocyte found in connective tissue, when injured they release strong chemicals known as histamine and heparin.
Oily substance secreted by the sebaceous gland found at the neck of the each hair follicle. This helps to keep the skin supple.
Tough bands of tissue that wrap around muscles and other internal structures. Muscles and bones are found below this layer.
Crush syndrome can develop in ____ hours.
Chemicals and proteins that are released and signal repairing cells to migrate to the injury.
The process of new epithelial cells moving into the injured or damaged area.
Granulocytes and Macrophages
Engulf bacteria and ingest damaged cell parts through phagocytosis.
a tough, fibrous protein found in scar tissue, hair, bones, and connective tissue. Collagen provides stability to the damaged tissue.
destroys bacteria and other pathogens.
Heparin is a...
compound occurring in the liver and other tissue which inhibits blood coagulation.
Acute and at times fatal disease in which the by-products of skeletal muscle destruction accumulate in the renal tubules and produce acute renal failure and other internal organ injuries. Kidney failure caused by rhabdomyolysis may produce life-threatening hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis.