Seizures and Epilepsy Flashcards Preview

Paramedic Class > Seizures and Epilepsy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Seizures and Epilepsy Deck (21):
1

seizure

temporary alteration in behavior due to the massive electrical discharge of one or more groups of neurons in the brain

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seizure caused by stress such as

hypoxia, rapid lowering the of the blood sugar

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febrile seizures

can occur in young children with sudden elevation in body temperature

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structural disease of the brain

tumors, head trauma, toxic eclampsia, vascular disorders

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most common cause of seizures

idiopathic epilepsy

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epilepsy and epileptic indicate

indicate potential to develop seizures in circumstances that would not induce them in most individuals

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partial seizures

remain confined to a limited portion of the brain, causing localized malfunction, or may spread and become generalized

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generalized seizures

begin as electrical discharge in a small area of the brain but spread to involve the entire cerebral cortex, causing widespread malfunction

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tonic-clonic (grand mal seizure)

generalized motor seizure, producing a loss of consciousness / includes a tonic phase (increased tone) / characterized by tensed, contracted muscles, and a clonic phase, characterized by rhythmic jerking movements of the extremities / intercostal muscles and diaphragm become temporarily paralyzed, interrupting respirations and producing cyanosis

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aura

subjective sensation preceding seizure activity

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tonic phase

continuous muscle tension rigidity, including hyperextension of back

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hypertonic phase

extreme muscular rigidity, including hyperextension of the back

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clonic phase

muscle spasms marked by rhythmic movements / jaw remains clenched, making airway management difficult

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post seizure

patient remains in a coma

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postictal

patient may awaken confused and fatigued / may complain of a headache and may experience some neurologic deficit

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absence (petit mal seizure)

brief, generalized seizure that usually presents with a 10 to 30 second loss of consciousness or awareness, eye or muscle fluttering, and occasion loss of muscle tone

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pseudo seizures (hysterical seizures)

stem from psychological disorders / patient presents with sharp and bizarre movements that can often be interrupted with a terse command, such a “stop it!”

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status epilepticus

series of two or more generalized motor seizures without an intervening return of consciousness

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med treatment for status epilepticus

diazepam (Valium) which is a benzodiazepine, via IV push at 5 to 10 mg

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common anticonvulsant medications

phenytoin (Dilantin), phenobarbital, carbamazepine (Tegretol), ethosuzamide (Zarontin), gabapentin (Neurontin), lamotrigine (Lamictal), valproic acid (Depakote)

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consider anticonvulsant if seizure last

greater than 5 minutes