Stoke and Intracranial Hemorrhage Flashcards Preview

Paramedic Class > Stoke and Intracranial Hemorrhage > Flashcards

Flashcards in Stoke and Intracranial Hemorrhage Deck (18):
1

occlusive strokes

occurs when a cerebral artery is blocked by a clot or other foreign matter / classified as either embolic or thrombotic, depending on the cause

2

ischemia

inadequate blood supply to the brain tissue and progresses to infarction

3

infarction

death of tissues as a result of cessation of blood supply

4

herniation

protrusion of brain tissue from the skull through the foramen magnum, the narrow opening at the base of the skull

5

embolic strokes

solid, liquid, or gaseous mass carried to a blood vessel from a remote site / most common emboli are clots (thromboemboli) / A-fib other results in atrial dilation, precursor to the formation of clots / occur suddenly and may be characterized by severe headaches

6

thrombotic strokes

blood clot that gradually develops in and obstructs a cerebral artery / atherosclerosis / signs and symptoms develop gradually, often occurs at night / characterized by patient awakening with alerted mental status, loss of speech, sensory, or motor function

7

hemorrhagic strokes

within the brain (intracerebral) or in the space around the outer surface of the brain (subarachnoid) / onset marked by severe headache / mostly occur in the hypertensive patient / subarachnoid hemorrhages often result from congenital blood vessel abnormalities (aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations) or head trauma / aneurysms tend to be on the surface and may hemorrhage into the brain tissue or subarachnoid space / arteriovenous malformations may be within the brain, in the subarachnoid space, or both

8

dysphasia

difficulty in speaking

9

aphasia

inability to speak

10

dysarthria

impairment of the tongue and muscles essential to speech

11

hemiparesis

weakness on one side

12

hemiplegia

paralysis on one side

13

paresthesia

numbness or tingling

14

predisposing stroke factors

hypertension, diabetes, abnormal blood lipid levels, oral contraceptives, sickle cell disease, cardiac arrhythmias (atrial fibrillation)

15

Los Angeles Prehospital Stroke Screen (LAPSS)

assesses blood glucose levels, facial droop, grip strength, and arm drift

16

Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale (CPSS)

evaluates facial droop, arm drift, and speech / abnormal finding on any of these 3 parameters is associated with a 72% probability the patient has suffered a stroke

17

transient ischemic attacks (TIAs)

temporary interference with the blood supply to the brain, producing symptoms of neurologic deficit / symptoms last for a few minutes or several hours and usually resolve within 24 hours

18

TIA common cause

carotid artery disease