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Flashcards in respiratory infection LOWER RESP INF Deck (14)
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1

respiratory tract infections indicate what 3 possibilities

1. defect in the host defenses
2. exposure to virulent microorganism
3. overwhelming inoculum (of less virulent bugs)

2

what are the two major respiratory tract defense mechanisms

humoral immunity
cell mediated immunity

3

what are 3 examples of cell-mediated immunities

1. alveolar macrophages
2. PMNs
3. T lymphocytes

4

what re 3 examples of humoral immunities

1. B lymphocytes
2. IgG antibodies
3. complement

5

what is the most common way by which lower airways become infected

aspiration of upper airway resident flora

6

what is the second most common way that lower airways become infected

inhalation of aerosolized material (mycoplasma, anaerobes...)

7

embolic staphylococcal pneumonia in IVDA with tricuspid endocarditis is an example of what

hematogenous seeding

8

what is the way airways get infected where infection spreads across diaphragm into pleural space and lung

contiguous spread

9

what are two examples of reactivation of an airway infection

1. TB
2. fungal pneumonias

10

what is the most common cause of acute bronchitis

viral infections

11

what are the clinical features of acute bronchitis

1. cough (most common symptom)
2. fever (very uncommon)
- combo of cough and fever usually indicates something that is not bronchitis

12

how is bronchitis treated

1. NSAID and Tylenol
2. ipratropium
3. nasal decongestants

13

what is not effective when treating acute bronchitis

beta-2-agonists and antibiotics

14

what is the most common reason that antibiotics are prescribed

acute bronchitis (even though no proven benefit)