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Flashcards in Review of Declensions of Nouns Deck (13)
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1

1:

Feminine Singular nouns remain unchanged in all Singular cases.

Examples:
Singular: | Typewriter | Street
Nom. | die Schreibmaschine | die Straße
Acc. | die Schreibmaschine | die Straße
Dat. | der Schreibmaschine | der Straße
Gen. | der Schreibmaschine | der Straße

2

2:

All Neuter and most Masculine Singular add -s or -es (if one syllable) to Genitive Singular.

Examples:
Singular: | Shoe | Shirt
Nom. | der Schuh | das Hemd
Acc. | den Schuh | das Hemd
Dat. | dem Schuh | dem Hemd
Gen. | des Schuhes | des Hemdes


Note: The genitive singular of shoe is generally written des Schuhs in colloquial German.

3

3:

Masculine nouns that end in -e in Nom. Sing. and designate living things add -n to form both Singular and Plural for all cases.

Example:
Lion(s)
Case | Singular | Plural
Nom. | der Löwe | die Löwen
Acc. | den Löwen | die Löwen
Dat. | dem Löwen | den Löwen
Gen. | des Löwen | der Löwen

4

4:

All Dative Plural either adds -n or -en.

Examples:

Man | Woman | Child
Nom. Sing. | der Mann | die Frau | das Kind
Dat. Pl. | den Männern | den Frauen | den Kindern

5

5:

In Plurals of all declensions of all genders, the Nominative, Genitive, and Accusative Plural are the same.

Examples:
Case | Forest | Pear
Nom. Sing. | der Wald | die Birne
Nom. Pl. | die Wälder | die Birnen
Acc. Pl. | die Wälder | die Birnen
Dat. Pl. | den Wäldern | den Birnen
Gen. Pl. | der Wälder | der Birnen

6

Exceptions:

Most singular declensions can be formed from the first three rules above, but plural nouns are more complex and irregular.  Some may add -n, -en, -r, -er, -e, or an umlaut over the stem vowel with a final -e, and some nouns do not change from singular to plural.

7

Group 1:

-Singular follows rules
-Plural adds umlaut to stem vowel and -n to all datives

Father(s) (masc.)
Case | Sing. | Plural
Nom. | der Vater | die Väter
Acc. | den Vater | die Väter
Dat. | dem Vater | den Vätern
Gen. | des Vaters | der Väter

Nouns belonging to this group:  Most nouns whose Nom. Sing. end in -el, -en, -er; and neuter nouns that begin with Ge- and end with -e.

8

Group 2:

-Singular follows rules
-Plural sometimes adds umlaut to stem vowel and -e to Nominative, Genitive, and Accusative; -en to Dative

Fruit (fem.)
Case | Sing. | Plural
Nom. | die Frucht | die Früchte
Acc. | die Frucht | die Früchte
Dat. | der Frucht | den Früchten
Gen. | der Frucht | der Früchte

Nouns belonging to this group:  Masculine that are one syllable; half of feminine and neuter that are one syllable.

9

Group 3:

-Singular follow rules
-Plural adds umlaut to stem vowel and -er to Nominative, Genitive, and Accusative; -ern to Dative

Man/men (masc.)
Case | Sing. | Plural
Nom. | der Mann | die Männer
Acc. | den Mann | die Männer
Dat. | dem Mann | den Männern
Gen. | des Mannes | der Männer

Nouns belonging to this group: Many neuter that are one syllable; no feminine nouns.

10

Group 4:

-Singular adds -en to all Masculine Dative, Accusative, and Genitive; Feminine follows rule
-Plural adds -n or -en to all forms


Student (s) | Woman/Women
Case | Sing. | Plural | Sing. | Plural
Nom. | der Student | die Studenten | die Frau | die Frauen 
Acc. | den Studenten | die Studenten | die Frau | die Frauen
Dat. | dem Studenten | den Studenten | der Frau | den Frauen
Gen. | des Studenten | der Studenten | der Frau | der Frauen

Nouns belonging to this group:  Most feminine that are more than one syllable, most masculine that denote living things; no neuter nouns.

11

Group 5:

-Add -s to Genitive Singular
-Add -s to all plural forms

Auto(s) (neu.)
Case | Sing. | Plural
Nom. | das Auto | die Autos
Acc. | das Auto | die Autos
Dat. | dem Auto | den Autos
Gen. | des Autos | der Autos


Nouns belonging to this group:  Foreign origin words, such as das Radio, das Restaurant, and das Hotel.

12

Group 6-Irregular:

-Add -ns or -ens to Genitive Singular
-Add -en to Dative Singular, may add -en to Accusative Singular 
-All plural add -en


Heart(s) | Name(s)
Case | Sing. | Plural | Sing. | Plural
Nom. | das Herz | die Herzen | der Name | die Namen
Acc. | das Herz | die Herzen | den Namen | die Namen
Dat. | dem Herzen | den Herzen | dem Namen | den Namen
Gen. | des Herzens | der Herzen | des Namens | der Namen

13

Group 7-Mixed:

-Add -s or -es for Genitive Singular
-Add -n or -en for all plural

Bed(s) (neu.)
Case | Sing. | Plural
Nom. | das Bett | die Betten
Acc. | das Bett | die Betten
Dat. | dem Bett | den Betten
Gen. | des Bettes | der Betten

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