Subjunctive II or General Subjunctive (Conditional) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Subjunctive II or General Subjunctive (Conditional) Deck (10)
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1

Subjunctive:

This subjunctive mood is used to make statements that are contrary to fact, instead of factual statements that are made in the indicative mood.  There are two forms of the German subjunctive: Subjunctive II and Subjunctive I.  Subjunctive II or the general subjunctive is used with if...then (wenn... dann) statements and conditional sentences.  Subjunctive I or special subjunctive is a less common mood that is used with indirect discourse. (If you study other languages with a subjunctive mood, please don't confuse it with the German subjunctive. They are not the same!)

2

Present Tense of Subjunctive II:

The present tense of Subjunctive II is derived from the simple past / imperfect tense of the indicative.  For weak (regular) verbs, the subjunctive II is the same as the simple past tense.  For strong (irregular) verbs, the present tense of the subjunctive II uses the stem of the simple past, adds an umlaut where possible, and then adds the following endings:

-e
-est
-e
-en
-et
-en

3

Strong Verbs in the Subjunctive II:

gehen:
ginge
gingest
ginge
gingen
ginget
gingen

fahren:
führe
führest
führe
führen
führet
führen

fliegen:
flöge
flögest
flöge
flögen
flöget
flögen

4

Sein, Haben and Werden in the Subjunctive II:

sein:
wäre
wärest
wäre
wären
wäret
wären

haben:
hätte
hättest
hätte
hätten
hättet
hätten

werden:
würde
würdest
würde
würden
würdet
würden

5

Exceptions:

Some exceptions include the mixed verbs, modals and wissen which use the same endings as the simple past:

Imperfekt | Subjunctive II
brachte | brächte
dachte | dächte
durfte | dürfte
konnte | könnte
mochte | möchte
sollte | sollte
wollte | wollte
mußte | müßte
wußte | wüßte

6

Past Tense of Subjunctive II:

The past tense of Subjunctive II is simply the subjunctive II of sein or haben (whichever auxiliary the verb takes in the indicative) and a past participle. The future tense of Subjunctive II is the subjunctive II of werden and an infinitive.

7

Conditional Sentences:

These sentences are based on an if... then (wenn... dann) pattern in both English and German.  Dann can be omitted in these sentences also.  Remember that wenn is a subordinating conjunction, and forces the conjugated verb to the end of the clause.

Present Subj. II:  Wenn ich Zeit hätte, (dann) ginge ich ins Kino.  If I had time, (then) I would go to the movies.

Past Subj. II:  Wenn ich Zeit gehabt hätte, dann wäre ich ins Kino gegangen.  If I had had time, (then) I would have gone to the movies.

8

Wenn Clauses:

case, wenn disappears and dann may be replaced by so:

Kommt er heute nicht, (so) kommt er morgen.  If he's not coming today, then he'll come tomorrow.

9

Dann Clause:

A conditional sentence may begin with the dann clause as well; but in this case, dann is not actually used and the clause uses normal word order:

Wir trinken den Kaffee nicht, wenn er zu heiß ist.  We don't drink coffee if it is too hot.

10

Forms of Würden + an Infinitive

Würde and an infinitive translates to would + infinitive and is more common than the one word form in thedann clause.  Wenn clauses tend to avoid the würde construction, except with these eight verbs: helfen, stehen, sterben, werfen, brennen, kennen, nennen, and rennen.  These eight verbs use the würde construction in the wenn clause because the one word forms are archaic.  Moreover, conversational German tends to replace many subjunctive II forms of strong verbs with the würde construction.  However, this construction is generally not used with the modal auxiliaries, wissen, haben or sein.

Wenn ich Zeit hätte, | dann ginge ich ins Kino./dann würde ich ins Kino gehen. | If I had time, I would go to the movies.
Wenn ich Geld hätte, | dann flöge ich nach Deutschland./dann würde ich nach/Deutschland fliegen. | If I had money, I would fly to Germany.

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