Session 2 - Histology of the kidney and nephron Flashcards Preview

Semester 3 - Urinary > Session 2 - Histology of the kidney and nephron > Flashcards

Flashcards in Session 2 - Histology of the kidney and nephron Deck (39):
1

What is the kidney surrounded by?

• Renal capsule
• Perinephric fat
• Renal fascia

2

What are the two main layers of the kidney?

• Renal cortex
• Renal Medulla

3

Describe the sequential structure of the nephron

• Renal corpuscle
• Proxima convoluted tubule
• Loop of Henle
• Distal convoluted tubule

4

What is the renal corpuscle made up of?

• Vascular pole - Afferent/efferent arterioles, glomerulus
• Urinary pole - Bowman's capsule

5

What structures make up the collecting system of the urinary system?

• Ureter
• Bladder
• Urethra

6

Name the two main structures found in the renal cortex

• Renal corpuscles
• Proximal convoluted tubules

7

Name the two structures which make up the renal corpuscle

• Bowman's capsule
• Glomerulus

8

In embryological terms, where is the primitive renal tubule derived from?

• The ureteric bud

9

What does the primordium of the true kidney eventually envelop?

Glomerulus

10

What is meant when we say that the glomerulus has a vascular pole

• Afferent and efferent arterioles

11

What is the urinary pole of the renal corpuscle?

• Bowman's capsule

12

What is the function of bowman's capsule?

• To produce ultrafiltrate of plasma

13

Outline the cellular structure of bowman's capsule's parietal and visceral layers

• Simple squamous epithelium

14

What is the filtration barrier of bowman's capsule produced by?

• Capillary endothelium and visceral layer of bowman's capsule

15

What is a podocyte?

• Modified epithelium which allow ultrafiltration

16

How is the parietal layer of bowman's capsule adapted to collect ultrefiltrate

• Forms a funnel to collect the ultrafiltrate which drains into the proximal convuluted tubule at the urinary pole

17

What type of capillary endothelium exists in the bowman's capsule

• Fenestrated

18

What does the investment of podocytes around capillary endothelium allow the formation of?

• Filtration slits, spaces between the podocyte processes (feet)
• Very leaky!

19

What is the proximal convoluted tubule?

• Longest, most convoluted section of the tubule
• Point at which reabsorption begins

20

What is the epithelium of the proximal convoluted tubule?

• Simple cuboidal epithelium with pronounced brush border

21

What are the four parts of the loop of henle?

• Pars recta
• Thin descending limb
• Thin ascending limb
• Thick ascending limb

22

How are the parts of the loop of henle described?

• Basis of appearance/epithelial lining

23

Describe the route of the thin limb of the loop of henle

• Dips down into the medulla

24

Describe the cell type and what exactly occurs functionally in the thin descending part of the loop of henle

• Simple squamous epithelium
○ No active transport
○ Looks a lot like a small capillary but there are no red blood cells
○ No brush border

25

What is the cell type and what occurs functional in the thick ascending part of the loop of henle?

• Simple cuboidal epithelium
• Active transport

26

Where is the distal convoluted tubule found?

• Cortex, makes contact with its parent glomerulus

27

How does the epithelial lining of the thick ascending limb compare to the proximal convoluted tubule?

• No brush border
• Simple cuboidal

28

How does the DCT compare to the PCT?

• No brush border
• Larger lumen

29

What does the juxtaglomerular apparatus consist of?

• The macula densa of distal convoluted tubule
• The juxtaglomerular cells of afferent arteriole of glomerulus
• Extraglomerular mesangial cells (lacis cells)

30

What is the collecting duct a continuation of?

• Distal convoluted tubule

31

Where is the collecting duct found?

Cortical

32

What is the collecting duct similar in appearance to?

• Loop of henle

33

How does the collecting duct differ from the loop of henle?

• Lumen is larger and tends to be more irregular than circular

34

How do collection ducts for the renal pyramid empty?

• Into the renal papilla

35

Describe the smooth muscles of the ureter?

• Two layers for the first 2/3, 3 for the lower 1/3

36

What is the ureter lined by?

• Transitional epithelium

37

How many layers of muscle in the bladder?

• 3 layers

38

What is the epithelium of the bladder?

• Transitional

39

What is urothelium?

• Stratified epithelium on the surface of the transitional epithelium of the bladder which increase in size on expansion and ensure epithelium is impermeable