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Flashcards in SHB Bonus Questions Only ALL SECTIONS Deck (34)
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Name 5 causes of infertility in mares

scars, blocked oviducts, abrasions, tumors, ulcers, ovarian cysts, pneumovagina(windsucking), poor general health, cervicitis, vaginitis, endometritis, closed cervix, split cervix


Name 4 conditions in a mare that would prevent breeding during foal heat

bruised cervix, laceration/tear in cervix, discharge from vagina, placenta retained more than 3 hours, lack of tone in uterus


Describe 3 processes that must take place in embryo transfer

fertilization and conception in donor mare, fertilized embryo taken from donor mare, embryo placed in recipient mare, recipient mare carries fetus to term, recipient mare gives birth


Name 5 economically important genetic traits that can be selected effectively by production breeders

height, weight, body length, heart girth circumference, cannon bone circumference, color, pulling power, running speed, walk speed, trot speed, quality of movement, temperament, cow sense, intelligence, type, confirmation


Genetic defects are sometimes characterized by the lethality of the trait that is involved. Name 3 types of lethals and give an example of each.

True lethal: Lethal white foal syndrome, Lethal dominant roan, Delayed lethal: cerebellular abiotrophy, cleft palate, Partial Lethal: parrot mouth, umbilical hernia, poor limb formation


Describe where the endometrium and peritonium are located.

endomitrium is the innermost mucous membrane in the uterine wall, peritonium is the outermost layer of the uterine wall


What cells are responsible for spermatozoa production and testosterone and estrogen production?

Sertoli cells produce sperm, Leydig cells produce hormones (testosterone and estrogen)


What are the 3 parts of the uterus?

body, horn(cornua), cervix(neck)


What are the 4 phases of the estrous cycle?

pro estrus, estrus, met estrus, diestrus, (anestrus, pregnancy also acceptable)


Name 2 things you can do for a foal who is not breathing

remove placenta from nostrils, artificial respiration, blowing in the mouth, rub body vigorously, lift body and gently drop foal


Name 2 extenders used in artificial extermination

skimmed milk, cream gelatin dilutor, A.M. extender


What are 2 other names for N.I.?

neonatal isoerythrolysis, hemolytic icterus, jaundice foal


Name the 3 classifications of follicles according to the varying stages of development during the breeding season

primordial, growing, graafian


What is the ratio of colors that would result from repeated matings of 2 palominos?

1/4 chestnut, 1/2 palomino, 1/4 cremello


What are 2 methods of testing colostrum for immunoglobulin concentration?

colostrometer and agglutination test kit


Name 2 methods of surgical transfer during embryo transfer.

Mid-ventral and flank incisions


Name 4 hormones secreted by the pituitary gland.

FSH, LH, growth hormone, prolactin, oxytocin, thyrotropin, vasopressin, adrenocorticopin


What are the 3 most commonly used hormones for the manipulation of the estrous cycle?

prostaglandins, progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin


Describe 4 measurements that determine the quality of a stallions semen

# of motile sperm, # of sperm per milliliter, volume of ejaculation, shape/structure of sperm, morphology(# of live sperm)


Pregnant mares should be immunized for which 4 diseases, 30 days prior to foaling?

Tetanus, eastern encephalomyelitis, western encephalomyelitis, influenza ***NOT RHINO***


Name the 4 criteria used to evaluate stallion semen

volume, concentration, mobility, morphology


What are the 3 parts of the penis?

root, body(shaft), glans penis


In the mare, the fetal placenta is formed by what 3 membranes?

Chorion, allantois, amnion


Name 3 uses for rectal palpitation in mares.

direct exam of internal reproductive organs (diagnose breeding problems), detection of pregnancy, determine appropriate time for breeding


Name 3 things a palpation chute can be used for.

rectal palpations, restrain mare during breeding, caslick operation, artificial insemination, hygiene procedures


Name 4 things that can occur in pregnant mares grazing on fescue immediately prior to parturition

prolonged gestation, thickened placenta at birth, lack of milk production, weak foals, stillborn foals, difficult birth


In mare management, mares can be classified into what 5 types during the breeding season?

pregnant, open, barren, maiden, wet


What are the 3 distinct layers of the uterus?

serous, myometrium, endometrium


Name the parts of the stallions reproductive tract.

2 testes, epididymis, urethra, penis, accessory glands: (cowpers, seminal vesicle, prostate)


What are the 3 most genetically common colors of horses?

Bay, black, chestnut


During the third trimester, a mare has specific increases in which 5 nutrients?

energy nutrients, protein, calcium, phosphorus, Vitamin A


Name 3 factors that affect the stallions ability to produce spermatozoa.

testicle size, season of the year, age


The epididymis can be divided into 3 segments, name them.

Head(caput), body(corpus), tail(cauda)


What are 3 types of qualitative gene actions?

Dominance, Co-Dominance, Partial Dominance