SHB Category: K, Horse Judging Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in SHB Category: K, Horse Judging Deck (268)
1

What is a natural 2-beat gait in which the lateral legs move simultaneously?

Pace

2

What is an exaggerated paddling?

Winging out

3

Most unsoundnesses from concussion and trauma occur where?

Front legs

4

What are the 3 natural gaits?

Walk, trot, and gallop

5

What term describes the withers, back, loin, and croup?

Topline

6

What term describes a horse that is free of any injuries or defects that would affect its usefulness?

Sound

7

What do we call ears that are carried horizontally to the side?

Lop ears

8

What are low, round, thick withers called?

Mutton withers

9

What are the bulged or op-eyed appearance of the eye called?

Bovine eyes

10

What is an unsoundness?

Defect in form or function that interferes with the usefulness of the horse

11

What term describes the physical appearance of the horse, due to arrangement of muscle, bone, and other body tissues?

Conformation

12

What is the single most important consideration when selecting a horse?

Purpose for which it is to be used

13

What is the fastest 4 beat artificial gait?

Rack

14

What term describes a hard contact with the ground?

Pounding

15

Give the term for a concave or sagging back.

Swayback

16

What is another name for the running walk?

Plantation gait

17

What is the smoothest gait of the Tennessee Walking Horse?

Running walk

18

Name the gait that is characterized by 2 beats, in which the diagonal fore and hind legs move together.

Trot

19

What term refers to a broken crest?

Lop neck

20

Name the action defect that results when the toe of the horse's hind foot strikes the lateral forefoot.

Forging

21

Which is the faster gait, trotting or pacing?

Pacing

22

What is the mother of all gaits and the most useful gait?

Walk

23

Name the 4 parts of the horse that are included in the topline.

Withers, back, loin (coupling), and croup

24

What type of interference occurs at the trot when the hind foot strikes the sole of the front foot on the same side?

Forging

25

What would be the ideal ratio of the top to bottom lines of the horse's neck?

2 to 1 with top longer

26

What is an ossification of the lateral cartilage resulting from injuries that cause calcium to accumulate and harden?

Sidebones

27

What is a bony enlargement in the groove formed by the splint and cannon bones?

Splint

28

What is exaggerated lifting and forward motion of one or both hocks that is spasmodic and involuntary and when is this condition most obvious?

Stringhalt, most obvious when backing or turning the horse

29

What shape should the head be when viewed from the side?

Triangular

30

Regardless of the breed, the hindquarters should appear to be what shape when viewed from the side?

Square

31

What is the term used to describe a short, quick, high, and often choppy stride?

Trappy

32

A horse with too much angle in the hock joint is called what?

Sickle hocked

33

In a balanced horse, the legs and heart girth are approximately the same length. How does having straight shoulders change this?

Straight shoulders cause legs to be longer than the heart girth

34

Blue eyes are often associated with horses of which breeding?

Pinto (paint)

35

Describe the unsoundness called stringhalt.

Involuntary excessive flexion of the horse's hocks with forward motion.

36

A horse with too much angle in the hock joint is called what?

Sickle hocked

37

Balance is the single most important characteristic in equine selection because it forms the basics for movement, length of stride, and ultimately performance. Balance is determined by what physical structure?

Skeletal structure

38

What are 4 parts of the horse that are included in the topline?

Withers, back, loin (coupling), and croup

39

Ideally where should the horse's eyes be positioned when viewed from the front?

About 1/3 of the distance from the poll to its muzzle

40

A horse with well-sprung ribs and heart girth and a deep, wide chest has ample room for what 2 systems?

Respiratory and digestive systems

41

What term describes a horse whose front toes point outward?

Splayfooted

42

What term refers to a pastern that has too much slope?

Coon footed

43

What is the term for a horse's knees that are in front of vertical when viewed from the side?

Buck-kneed

44

Name the fastest paso gait.

Paso largo

45

What term describes the horse's eyes when they are too small and set back into its head?

Pig-eyed

46

Which sex of horse would have a more prominent jaw and more heavily muscled body?

Male

47

What causes the action defect called rolling?

Wide fronted horse or extremely obese horse

48

In what 3 areas are muscles most likely to be developed in a heavily muscled horse?

Forearm, gaskin, rear quarters

49

What is the term for a horse's knees that are behind vertical when viewed from the side?

Calf-kneed

50

What term describes a horse with a convex back, due to a permanently malformed spinal column?

Roach back

51

What is the single most important characteristic in equine selection?

Balance

52

Base-wide horses are predisposed to what?

Ringbone and navicular disease

53

What is a bony enlargement surrounding the bones of the pastern?

Ringbone

54

Horses that toe in will move with what type of arc?

Wide outward arc

55

When selecting a horse, what is the most important conformation characteristics of any breed?

Balance

56

What is the term for a horse that is weak in its coupling and shallow in the flank?

Hound gutted or wasp-waisted

57

What term describes the throwing of the front feet inward while in flight and what conformation problem is it associated with?

Dishing or winging, associated with toed-out or splayfooted

58

Horses that toe out will move with what type of arc?

Inward arc

59

What is the study of motion and the gaits, specifically with reference to mechanics and anatomy?

Kinesiology

60

The length of what is relative to the length of the shoulder and forearm?

Length of arm

61

What gait has a flowing movement in which the forelegs roll to the outside as the horse strides forward distinctive of the Peruvian Paso?

Termino

62

Describe a horse that is base narrow.

Front legs and hind legs too close together

63

What condition occurs when there is a strain on the flexor tendon which causes synovial fluid to escape into the hock hollow?

Thoroughpin

64

What is another name for an undershot jaw?

Monkey mouth

65

Which part of the horse's hind quarters should be the widest when viewed from the rear?

Stifle area

66

What is it called when the hocks are too far apart, are generally predisposed to being base narrow, and can toe in on the rear hooves?

Bowlegged

67

What is it called when a horse toes in behind and are 'out at the hocks'?

Bowlegged

68

Sickle hocks predispose a horse to what condition?

Curbs

69

What term describes when the horse's front feet are wider at the ground than at their origin at the chest?

Base wide

70

Steep pasterns will cause what type of stride?

Choppy and rough

71

A splay footed conformation usually will cause what gait abnormality?

Winging

72

Describe what parts of the horse interfere when a horse forges.

Toe of the hind foot hits the sole or shoe of the forefoot on the same side

73

A good rule of thumb when judging horses is that when all other things are equal, what is an asset?

Size

74

What is the vital junction between the forearm and the cannon?

Knee

75

What is the vital junction between the gaskin and the cannon?

Hock

76

Which breed is known for its termino gait?

Peruvian Paso

77

What conformation defect has the carpus angled behind the ideal straight line of the front leg construction when viewed from the side?

Calf knees

78

A horse that is low at the withers or high at the hip is said to be walking downhill and will have a tendency to have what defect in its way of going?

Forging

79

Cow hocks often contribute to development of what condition?

Bone spavins

80

What term describes when the hairline at the top of the hindfoot hits the toe of the forefoot as it breaks over?

Scalping

81

Describe a horse that is cow-hocked.

Hocks are close together and its feet are wide apart

82

Define a lateral gait.

Legs on the same side perform the gait in pairs-- pace

83

Which conformation fault of the forelimbs can cause ringbones and navicular disease?

Short upright pasterns

84

In reference to the way of going, winging occurs in horses with what conformation defect?

Base wide or toed-out feet

85

What is it called when the lower jaw protrudes in front of the upper jaw?

Monkey mouth (undershot jaw)

86

A pigeon-toed horse exhibits a deviation of its foot in flight, what is this action called?

Paddling

87

What condition has too much angle in the hock joint?

Sickle hocks

88

Which conformation fault can cause a curb?

Sickle hocks

89

A base narrow horse is predisposed to landing on the outside of its hoof walls, thus may have a tendency to develop which 2 conditions?

Ringbone, sidebones, and heel bruising

90

Bowlegged horses will cause increased weight to be carried where on the hoof wall?

To the outside

91

What area of the hoof carries more weight on a horse that is base narrow?

Outside of the hoof

92

What is it called when a horse has a structural problem or deviation that has only a limited effect on the horse's ability to perform?

Serviceably sound

93

What area of the hoof carries more weight on a horse that is base wide?

Inside of the hoof

94

What are 2 additional gaits of the 5 gaited Saddlebred?

Slow gait and rack

95

What term describes a specific way of going with a specific sequence of limb movements that are repeated each stride with a regular cadence?

Gait

96

What term refers to when the horse's leg stands under its hip from the hocks down due to excessive angulation in the hock when viewed from the side?

Sickle hocked

97

What are 2 basic types of supporting leg interference?

Brushing & striking

98

What condition has the cannon bones set too far to the outside of the knee?

Bench knees or offset knees

99

What term is used to indicate a horse that stands closer at the ground than at the origin of the legs in the chest?

Base narrow

100

What part of the horse provides propulsion, serves as a base of support & helps absorb shock?

Forequarters

101

What term refers to a horse that stands closer at the ground than at the origin of the legs in the chest?

Base narrow

102

What term is used to indicate a horse that stands wider at the ground than at the origin of the legs inn the chest?

Base wide

103

Horses that stand base narrow, are predisposed to extra weight being placed on what part of the hoof?

Outside of hoof

104

Horses that stand base wide, are predisposed to extra weight being placed on what part of the hoof?

Inside of the hoof

105

Name the specific part of the horse's back or topline that must be well muscled, short & strong, in order to transmit the forward power generated in the hind quarters.

Loin (coupling)

106

What is a bony enlargement surrounding the bones of pastern?

Ringbone

107

Horses that are bowed in at the hocks & cannon bones instead of being parallel are called what?

Cow hocked

108

Which structural deviation of the knees when viewed from the side is extremely serious & many horses with this condition will not stay sound?

Calf kneed (back at the knee)

109

What 2 problems are camped out horses predisposed to?

Navicular disease & laminitis

110

What term describes a horse whose entire forelimb is too far forward & away from the body?

Camped out

111

What term describes a horse whose forelimb is too far under the body?

Camped under

112

What term denotes excess hair on the chin, throat, ears & legs?

Coarseness

113

Which area of the hoof carries more weight if a horse has knocked knees?

Inside of the hoof

114

What is an extension backward of the flexor tendons caused by tearing or stretching?

Bowed tendon

115

What condition has the entire knee set to the inside of a straight line from the chest to the toe?

Knock kneed or close kneed

116

What is the exaggerated lifting & forward movement of one or both hocks that is spasmodic & involuntary & when is this condition most obvious?

Stringhalt, most obvious when backing or turning sharply

117

Name the conformation defect characterized by a weak loin & shallow flank.

Hound gutted

118

What are the 2 types of stride interference?

Striding leg interference & supporting leg interference

119

What is a bony enlargement that appears on the inside & front of the hock at the point where the base of the hock tapers into the cannon bone?

Bone spavin or Jack spavin

120

What is the characteristic of a 'stride stance phase'?

One or more of the horse's feet are on the ground during the stride

121

What term describes characteristics such as head shape, head & neck carriage, body structure, color characteristics, gaits or way of going?

Breed type

122

What term is used to indicate that a horse may have a structural problem or deviation which may have only a limited affect on the horse's ability to perform?

Serviceably sound

123

Describe the pace

Rapid 2- beat gait in which the lateral forelegs and hindlegs move together

124

The majority of the horse's weight, approximately 60-65%, is carried where?

Front legs

125

What is another term for offset knee?

Bench knee

126

What is the most important factor when selecting a new horse?

Purpose for which it will be used

127

What gait has a flowing movement in which the forelegs roll to the outside as the horse strides forward?

Termino ( Peruvian Paso's gait)

128

What is the speed of the fox trot?

5 - 8 miles per hour

129

A horse whose height at the withers, height at the hip & length of body is approximately the same is said to be what?

Balanced

130

Where is the primary point of attachment of the forelimbs to the rest of the body?

Shoulder blade or scapula

131

What is the hardest part of the horse to keep sound?

Forelegs

132

What is the term for the physical appearance of an animal due to the arrangement of muscle, bone & often body tissue?

Conformation

133

Height measurement of horses is recorded as what?

Hands

134

What percent of the horse's weight is carried on the front legs?

60-65%

135

What is the ideal slope of the shoulder?

45 - 50 degrees

136

What is a fast, 4-beat gait, characterized by a smooth , fluid motion where the hind legs overstrides the print of the front foot, the head nods & it has a 1-2-3-4 beat cadence?

Running walk

137

What are the 3 most important paso gaits?

Paso fino, paso corto & paso largo

138

What is the speed of the running walk gait of the Tennessee Walking horse?

8 - 10 miles per hour

139

The best description of size is a combination of what 2 measurements?

Weight & height

140

What term is used to refer to refinement of hair, hide, bones & joints?

Quality

141

Name2 types of ears that are undesirable.

Lop ears & mule ears

142

In what area of the horse would stringhalt be found?

Hindlegs

143

What measurement can be used as a remarkably accurate method of estimating weight regardless of breed?

Heart girth measurment

144

What is the best measurement of growth in a horse?

Weight

145

What term describes a short, quick, high & often choppy stride?

Trappy

146

What conformation defect causes paddling?

Pigeon toed horses (toes in)

147

What is the hoof beat sequence of the trot?

2 beat diagonal pairs of legs move together, Right front & left hind & Left front & right hind move together

148

Describe the pace.

2 beat lateral gait with the front & rear feet on the same side start & land together

149

What conformation defect causes rolling?

Wide chested horses

150

What measurement is used to refer to the fractions of a hand?

Inches

151

What is the only horse in the world that is capable to naturally overstride?

Tennessee Walker

152

What is the most common conformational fault of the hind leg when viewed from the side?

Sickle hocked

153

What are the 2 basic types of interferences?

Striding leg interference & supporting leg interference

154

What term describes horses that roll from side to side as they stride?

Rolling

155

When the horse changes gaits from the canter to the gallop, why does the beat change from 3 to 4?

In the gallop the middle diagonal pair of legs no longer hit the ground together, the hind leg hits the ground slightly before the diagonal front leg changing the beat to 4

156

Which is the more serious fault: buck knees or calf knees?

Calf knees

157

What is the desirable conformation trait that allows for free forward motion of the limbs with looking at the shoulder?

Sloping shoulder

158

A concave neck accompanied by a depression in front of the withers & thickened, rounded underline of the neck is called what?

Ewe neck

159

What is calf-kneed?

Sprung back at the knee

160

What is the basic difference between the Paso fino & the Paso largo?

Paso largo is faster

161

What is an inward break at the knee?

Knock kneed

162

The artificial gaits all have what 2 things in common?

All have 4 beats & sequence is similar to that of the walk

163

What is it called when the horse's knees are sprung forward?

Buck kneed

164

Which breed of horse has a natural overstride?

Tennessee Walker

165

What term describes the repeated limb coordination & placement patterns exhibited by the moving horse?

Stride

166

Name 2 differences in the running walk & the rack.

Rack has more action, the hind legs at the rack do not overreach the front legs

167

What is it called when the hind leg is hit at the cannon or shin with the front toe?

Shin hitting

168

Which of the basic types of interferences is the most serious?

Supporting leg interference

169

What supporting leg interference results in an open wound?

Striking

170

Why are the lower legs of the horse used to estimate bone quality?

No muscling below the knees & hocks so bones are easily viewed, can't see other bones of the body

171

What is the difference between the trot & the pace?

Both are 2 beat gaits, trot is diagonal while pace is lateral

172

What term refers to the luster of the hair coat?

Bloom

173

What 2 stride factors determine the speed of a horse?

Stride frequency & stride length

174

What is the term used to indicate that a horse may have a structural problem or deviation which may have a limited affect on horse's ability to perform?

Serviceably sound

175

What are the 2 supporting leg interferences?

Brushing and striking

176

What is it called when the hind leg hits the correct with the toe of the forefoot?

Scalping

177

What do roughed hair, nicks & scars on the fetlock tell you about a horse's way of going?

It may interfere

178

What is a fast 4 beat ground covering walk characteristic of the Tennessee Walking Horse?

Running walk

179

What is it called when the hind leg on one side strikes the diagonal foreleg?

Cross-firing

180

What 2 conformational faults occur when the articular ridge & the articular grooves of the tibial tarsal bone do not fit correctly?

Splay footed & pigeon toed

181

What 2 artificial gaits does the American Saddle Horse perform?

Slow gait & rack

182

What is an occult spavin?

Hock lameness without visible exostosis ( bony outgrowth)

183

Horses that wear the hoof wall unevenly usually have what problem?

Crooked legs or feet

184

The main propulsive force for forward motion is what?

Hind legs

185

How much will the angle of the front feet differ from the angle of the hind feet?

Hind feet are 2 - 3 degrees greater

186

What is it called when the hind leg is hit at the pastern or fetlock with the toe of the forefoot?

Speedy cutting

187

Which gait is easy on the rider but tiring for the horse & receives much emphasis in the judging of 5-gaited horses?

Rack

188

Name 2 ways the horse's gaits will be affected by a steep shoulder.

Shorter stride& rough gaits

189

Which gait is a fast, flashy, 4-beat gait that is free from any pacing motion & is sometimes called the single foot?

Rack

190

What is the pivot point of the horse's back?

Loin ( coupling)

191

What is another name for overshot muzzle?

Parrot mouth

192

What is it called when the hind foot strikes the forefoot & the impact area is on the pastern or fetlock?

Speedy cutting

193

What term describes long, thick, heavy ears?

Mule ears

194

Describe the 4 basic steps used in a systematic approach to horse judging.

Tracking the horse, profile view from the side at a distance, close inspection from the front & rear

195

What term describes the twisting of the striding leg around the supporting leg?

Rope walking or winding

196

A horse with 'too much set to the hocks' is often described as having what kind of hocks?

Sickle hocks

197

What condition is predisposed in horses with toe-in or pigeon-toed standing positions?

Paddling

198

What is the term for the physical appearance of an animal due to the arrangement of muscle, bone & other body tissue?

Conformation

199

What is an outward break at the knee?

Bowlegged

200

What term describes the use of painful methods & devices to enhance the horse's gait in the show ring?

Soring

201

If a horse is thick & coarse in the throatlatch, name 2 things that may be restricted when the horse is asked to flex at the poll.

Air & blood flow

202

What 2 factors will a judge use to evaluate the barrel of a horse?

Spring of ribs & depth of heartgirth

203

What is the term for hitting the sole of the forefoot with the toe of the hindfoot on the same side?

Forging

204

What action defect occurs when a pigeon-toed horse throws his front feet outward?

Paddling

205

When the cannon is not centered in the knee when viewed from the front, it is called what?

Offset or bench knee

206

What is the ideal slope of the horse's shoulder?

45 - 50 degrees

207

What is the single most important physical characteristic in equine selection because it forms the basics for movement, length of stride & ultimately performance & is determined by skeleton structure?

Balance

208

What is the fast, four-beat ground covering walk characteristic of the Tennessee Walking horse?

Running walk

209

Name 3 temperment characteristics associated with the size & appearance of the eyes.

Large quiet soft eyes indicate quiet docile disposition. Pig eyes indicate lazy & difficult to train. Excessive white around eye indicates nervous & flighty

210

The length of the arm is relative to the length of which 2 other parts of the horse?

Shoulder & forearm

211

How many stride suspension phases are in one stride at the canter?

One

212

Describe the difference between the stance phase & the swing phase of a stride.

Stance phase is the weight lifting phase where one or more limbs are in contact with the ground, Swing phase is when no limbs are in contact with the ground.

213

What is another name for patella fixation?

Stifled

214

Give a location & also describe what a splint is.

Calcification or bony growth found on the cannon bone or splint bone area of the leg, usually the front leg.

215

The Tennessee Walking Horse, at the running walk, covers approximately how many miles per hour?

10

216

Name the 3 natural gaits of the Tennessee Walking Horse.

Flat footed walk, running walk, canter

217

Name 4 gaits that do not have a suspension phase.

Walk, foxtrot, singlefoot, amble, running walk, paso

218

Describe coonfooted

Too much slope to the pastern

219

What are the 2 primary structural deviations in the knees, when viewed from the side & which is most common?

Buck knees ( over at the knee) most common & calf knee (back at the knee)

220

Describe abduction as it applies to limb movement.

Movement away from the median plane ( away from center of line dissecting horse vertically)

221

What is it called when a horse has low pasterns & shallow heels?

Coon footed

222

What are wind puffs & are they an unsoundness or blemish?

Soft, puffy, fluid filled swellings occurring around a joint capsule, tendon sheath or bursa. Usually on the lower legs. They are blemishes

223

Describe the difference between striding leg & supporting leg interference.

Striding leg-one moving leg make contact with another moving leg, Supporting leg-the striding leg strikes the supporting leg

224

What causes the action defect called rolling?

Wide fronted horses or extremely obese horses

225

What are 3 natural & 3 artificial gaits of the horse?

Natural - walk, trot & gallop (pace can be also), Artificial - running walk, slow gait, rack, stepping pace, pacing walk, paso, single foot, amble

226

Name the 2 basic types of gaits & give an example of each.

Natural- walk, trot, gallop. Artificial - rack, canter, lope, jog,, running walk, slow gait, sometimes the pace

227

Name 3 factors that influence the correctness of a young foal's legs & hooves.

Adequate exercise, equal & even pressure of the growth plates, properly trimmed hooves with any corrections done when foal is a few days old & its hooves are hard enough to trim

228

Describe 3 features of the lope.

3 beat gait,, very slow to medium slow smooth gait, horse's head is carried low

229

What are the foot fall sequence for the left lead canter?

Right hind, left hind & right fore together, left fore

230

Describe the difference between scalping & speedy cutting.

Scalping-toe of front foot hits the coronet of the hind leg, Speedy cutting-toe of forefoot hits the pastern or fetlock of the hind leg

231

Describe the action defect, scalping.

Forefoot toe hits the hind leg at the coronet band

232

Describe a horse that is bucked kneed.

Front legs bent forward at the knees or oversprung at the knees

233

Name 5 systematic unsoundnesses.

Heaves (COPD), azoturia (Monday morning sickness), Roaring, colic, any contagious disease (rhinopneumonitis, influenza, strangles, etc.)

234

Name 2 areas of the horse that is critical to its length of stride & smoothness of gait.

Forequarters, forelimbs, thoracic limbs

235

Describe a base narrow horse.

Front legs & or hind legs too close together

236

A pigeon toed horse exhibits a deviation of its foot in flight, what is this action called?

Paddling

237

How many suspended phases are there when all 4 of the horse's feet are off the ground during the gallop?

One, just after the lead foot leaves the ground

238

Name 3 conformation faults of the knee.

Calf kneed, buck kneed, knock kneed, bench knees, offset knee

239

Describe adduction as it applies to limb movement.

Movement towards the median (center of line the dissects the horse vertically) plane

240

What determines the balance of a horse?

Its skeletal structures

241

Describe rope walking

Twisting of the striding leg around the supporting leg

242

What are the foot fall sequence of a right lead canter?

Left hind, right hind & left fore together, right fore

243

What is the hoof sequence of the paso?

Right rear, right fore, left rear, left fore

244

How does a horse with excessive angulation of the hock generally stand?

Camped-under/fleet too far forward

245

What is the term for a convex appearance from the eye to the muzzle?

Roman nose

246

What gait is a broken pace, with more action in front than behind, that is performed at 3 speeds?

Paso

247

The angle of the front foot should be equal to the angle of what 2 other parts?

Angle of shoulder & pasterns

248

What is the incapability of movement when first starting exercise?

Cold lameness

249

What does 'lightness' mean when referring to the horse's mouth?

Softness & responsiveness during training

250

What is a natural 4 beat lateral gait that is extremely smooth on the rider & performed at three speeds?

Paso

251

What is a bony enlargement in the groove formed by the splint & cannon bones?

Splint

252

Describe a pigeye

Eye that is too small for the size of the head

253

What breed is noted for its flat foot walk, running walk & a rocking chair canter?

Tennessee Walking horse

254

What term used to describe a horse that has too much lope to its pasterns?

Coon footed

255

In pigeon toed horses, the horse's feet move forward in what type of arc?

Wide outward arc

256

What is the most frequent structural deviation of the knee when viewed from the side?

Over at the knee ( buck kneed)

257

Name 5 common conformation faults of horses that can be corrected by trimming its hooves.

Splayfooted, pigeon toed, cocked ankles, quarter crack, contracted heels

258

Name 3 interferences that occur when one front leg strikes the opposite front leg.

Ankle hitting, shin hitting, knee hitting, forearm hitting

259

Give 5 types of undesirable characteristics of a horse's front legs when viewed from the front.

Bow legged, base narrow, base wide, knock kneed, pigeon toes, splayfooted, offset knee(bench knee)

260

What are the 2 basic causes of unsoundness?

Congenital & acquired

261

Name 5 conformation faults of the horse's body, excluding the leg & head.

Mutton withers, swayback, roach back, ewe neck, straight shoulders, wasp-waisted, narrow chest, shoulder too wide, short thick neck, slab sided, goose rumped, lop neck, thick throatlatch.

262

Name 5 structural deviations of the front legs

Knock-kneed(close knees), bench knees(offset), bowlegged, base wide, base narrow, pigeon toed, splayfooted

263

The angle & position of what 2 parts of the hindquarters will determine how collected, balanced
& horizontal the movement of the hind limbs will be?

Croup angle & hock position

264

What are the 2 general classifications of gaits?

Natural & artificial

265

Describe the difference between supporting leg interference & striding leg interference.

Striding leg-one moving leg makes contact with another moving leg, Supporting leg-striding leg strikes the supporting leg

266

Name 4 structural deviations of the front legs.

Knock-knees, bench knees (offset knee), bowlegged, base wide, base narrow, pigeon toed, splayfooted

267

What are the 5 walks exhibited in a dressage test?

Working, collected, medium, extended & free

268

Name 5 common conformation faults of horses that can be corrected by trimming its hooves.

Splayfooted, pigeon toed, cocked ankles, quarter crack, contracted heels