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Flashcards in SHB Category: E, History Deck (93)
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1

What was man's earliest use of the horse?

Food

2

The horse's greatest contribution to human history was its use as what?

War machine, tool of war

3

What kind of environment did the earliest stages of Equus inhabit?

River banks and swamps

4

How many classifications of one-toed animals are the besides the horse and its immediate relatives?

None

5

Where did the horse originate?

North America (great plains)

6

What tribe of indians was responsible for the development of the Appaloosa breed?

Nez Perce

7

For what purpose was man's earliest association with the horse?

As a source of food

8

Name 3 distinguishing characteristics of the Perissodactyla

Odd number of toes, hooved, non-ruminant, mammals

9

In the zoological order, what is the species of the horse?

Equus caballus

10

What zoological classification contains animals with backbones?

Chordata

11

To what breed did the Morgan contribute to substantially and later was replaced by this new breed on the track?

Standardbred

12

How many years ago did Equus originate?

1 million years ago

13

What is the Wild Horse of Central Europe?

Tarpan

14

In the zoological order, what is the genus of the horse?

Equus

15

The horse has the distinction of being the only animal in the world with what?

One toe on each foot

16

How many other one-toed animals are there besides the horse and its immediate relatives?

None

17

What was the first horse called and in what epoch did it appear?

Eohippus in Eocene epoch

18

In the zoological order, what family does the horse belong to?

Equidae

19

How many geological epochs did the horse family live on the North American continent?

Four

20

In the zoological order, what phylum does the horse belong to?

Chordata

21

Name another animal, other than the horse, in the order Perissodactyla

Rhinoceros, tapir

22

What color is similar to that of the tarpan and Przewalski's horse?

Dun or buckskin

23

How did the horse migrate to other areas of the world from North America?

Existing land bridges at the time

24

Why is it hard to find wild horses in their pure form?

They interbreed freely with domestic horses

25

What is a tarpan?

European wild horse of East Prussia (Wild Asian horse)

26

The horse evolved and flourished in North America during how many geological epochs?

Four

27

During which epoch did the horse appear?

Eocene epoch

28

Which Spanish explorer was credited with bringing the first spotted horses to the North American continent?

Cortez

29

During the Eocene epoch, where did the ancestors of Equus live?

River banks of North America

30

Why did the early horse become extinct in North America?

We don't know why, most theories have been discounted

31

Although we do not know why, the horse disappeared from North America about the same time which mammal appeared?

Man

32

Who introduced the East Coast Indians to horses?

Spanish explorers

33

The first domesticated horses to reach the North American continent were the mount of whom?

Spanish conquistadors

34

By 1000 BC, the domestication of the horse had spread to almost every part of what 3 areas of the world?

Europe, Asia, and North Africa

35

A man's pathway to glory is strewn with what?

The bones of a horse

36

What is the genus and species of the true zebra?

Equus zebra

37

Where in the US are many fossil remains of the horse found?

River valley clays, sand and sandstone of American West

38

What ability of the horse had the greatest significance in building civilization?

The role as a draft animal

39

Name 4 continents where fossil remains of the horse have been found

Asia, Europe, Africa, South America, North America

40

From 1650 to 1750, what effect did the horse have on North America?

Indians developed into a Great Horse Culture and the horse greatly changed the lifestyle and culture of the Plains Indians

41

The evolution of the horse can be traced by detailed studies of which part of the horse's anatomy?

Teeth

42

How many geological epochs did the horse survive before its extinction from North America?

Four

43

What zoological classification contains warm blooded animals that give milk and have hair?

Mammalia

44

What zoological order is the horse classified as and what does it denote?

Perissodactyla meaning odd-toed non-ruminating hooved animals

45

What historical occurrence caused a severe decrease in the horse population in the US and occurred between 1918 and 1950?

Invention of combustion engine

46

What highly sought after breed of tall, rangy draft horse was developed in Southern Pennsylvania for freight hauling, only to eventually die out and a breed registry was never established?

Conestoga horse

47

What phylum does the horse belong to?

Chordata

48

What is the zoological species of the horse?

Equus caballus

49

What kingdom does the horse belong to?

Animalia

50

What zoological class does the horse belong to?

Mammalia

51

What is the name for the first "true horse" which originated in North America a million years ago?

Equus

52

What was the epoch and stage of evolution of the horse when he disappeared from North America?

Pleistocene epoch and equus

53

Name a breed of East Coast Indian horses

Chickasaw

54

What horse broke the trotting record of Greyhound in 1969?

Nevele Pride

55

Who was responsible of bringing the horse back to North America?

Spanish conquistadors

56

In the 1950's, the number of horses in the US had dropped to how many head?

2 million

57

Initial domestication of the horse occurred in several parts of the world at the same time. When did this domestication take place?

Between 4500-2500 BC

58

In the zoological classification of the horse, the horse is of what order?

Perissodactyla

59

In the zoological order what class does the horse belong to?

Mammalia

60

How long did it take for the Great 'wild' horse herds of the Plain to become adapted to a region, after being re-introduced to North America?

200 years

61

In the zoological scheme, name the classification of the horse's family.

Equidae

62

Who brought the first horses back to the North American continent after the Ice Age?

Spanish Conquistadors

63

Where was the original home of the horse 58 million years ago?

Great Plains of North America

64

What caused the decrease in numbers of draft horses in the US in the early 1900s?

Invention of the combustion engine (tractors, cars, trucks)

65

Mesohippus lived during what epoch?

Oligocene

66

What was the use of the Conestoga horse?

Freight haulers

67

Name the American Indian breed that is found in the ancestry of the Quarter horse, American Saddle horse, and Tennessee Walking horse.

Chickasaw

68

How many horses were in the US in 1918?

21 million

69

What is the family name of the horse?

Equidae

70

In which epoch did the horse become extinct from North America?

Pleistocene

71

Name the genus of the living members of the horse family.

Equus

72

In the Northeastern US, there was a need for a versatile, light harness, driving, and riding horse. What breed was developed in response to this need?

Morgan

73

What evolutionary stage was the horse in during the Ice Age?

Equus

74

On what continent did Equus originate?

North America

75

What is the genus and species of the horse?

Equus caballus

76

How many races did Man O'War win?

21 out of 22

77

Give the species name of the horse.

Equus Caballus

78

What is the Greek word for horse?

Hippus

79

Give the complete zoological classification of the horse.

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Perissodactyla
Family: Equidae
Genus: Equus
Species: Equus Caballus

80

During what epoch did equus disappear from North America?

Pleistocene epoch

81

Name 2 reasons why the horse family is a classic example of evolution.

Enormous changes in size and structure in response to its environment and well preserved fossil remains.

82

Name 3 members of the genus, Equus

Horses, ponies, zebras, asses

83

What are 6 ways the horse has served man throughout the ages?

Beast of burden, draft animal, means of transportation, war machine, recreation, companionship, and food

84

In 1918, there were 21 million horses in the US, what type of horses were the most numerous?

Draft horses

85

The horse's development was probably significantly affected by what 4 environmental factors?

Altitude, climate, soil, and forage

86

What zoological order is the horse classified as and what does it denote about the horse?

Perissodactyla, means odd-toed, non-ruminating, hoofed animal

87

The ancestors of Equus had numerous toes, what happened to the missing toes?

They became splint bones

88

What is the species name for an ass?

Equus Asinus

89

How many years ago did Equus originate?

1 million years ago

90

Equus disappeared from North America in what epoch?

Pleistocene

91

Give 3 examples of how evolution has affected the horse.

Increased in size, decreased number of toes, changed from browser to grazer, changed from living in swamp to grazing areas, teeth changed in size and function from browser to grazer, fusion of tibia and fibula, fusion of radius and ulna

92

Name 3 common factors possessed by animals found in the order Perissodactyla

Odd-toed, non-ruminating, hoofed animals

93

Give the zoological classification: the kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species of the horse.

Animalia, Chordata, Mammalia, Perissodactyla, Equidae, Equus, Equus Caballus