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Flashcards in SHB Category: A, Nutrition Deck (284)
1

What are the 2 basic classifications of forages?

Legumes and grasses

2

What is probably the simplest and least expensive dry method of processing grains?

Grinding

3

Which feed is used extensively in diets for horses that have respiratory problems such as heaves?

Beet pulp

4

Proteins are made up of a chain of smaller units called what?

Amino acids

5

What is the most economical source of supplemental protein?

Soybean meal

6

What is the general term for amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be supplied by the diet?

Essential amino acids

7

Which protein supplement contains more lysine than most other vegetable proteins?

Soybean meal

8

What is the most common method used to process forages?

Baling

9

How much water will a 1,000 pound horse drink per day?

10-12 gallons per day

10

What is the most important factor affecting the quality of a forage at the time of harvesting?

Stage of maturity

11

What is the most commonly cubed forage?

Alfalfa

12

Hay stored indoors for one to two years will lose about what percentage of its nutrient content?

15-20%

13

What is the device used to collect samples for analysis in baled hay?

Bale probe or bale core

14

What is the oldest and most common method of selecting hay?

Visual appraisal

15

The requirements of sodium chloride depends on the amount lost in what?

Sweat

16

What is the most common form of malnutrition in horses in the US?

Obesity

17

In extremely cold weather, which will produce more body heat when eaten, hay or grain?

Hay produces more heat

18

Which grass hay is a favorite among horseman?

Timothy

19

How much more energy is in fat than in carbohydrates?

2.25 times as much

20

Typically horses receive nutrients from what 3 general sources?

Hay, pastures, and grains

21

What are the 2 most important dietary energy components in feeds?

Fats and carbohydrates

22

What is the recommended feeding frequency?

2 or more meals daily

23

What are the 2 general classes of forages?

Grasses and legumes

24

Name 2 ways corn can be processed for horse feed.

Whole, ear corn, or cracked

25

What is the deficient amino acid in hays and grains?

Lysine

26

Which grain contains slightly more proteins and minerals, corn or oats?

Oats

27

Approximately 80 percent of the body's phosphorus is contained where in the horse?

Skeleton

28

Name 3 types of salt blocks available for horses.

Plain salt, iodized salt, trace-mineralized salt.

29

Which type of hay should not be fed to horses with kidney problems?

Alfalfa

30

Dietary proteins are broken down into what substances?

Amino acids

31

What percentage of milk is water?

90%

32

Feral and other free-ranging horses will spend how long grazing per day in good forage?

10-12 hours

33

In addition to drinking water, the horse can obtain water from what other 2 sources?

In feed and metabolism

34

Name the type of forage that provides the horse with an excellent source of calcium.

Alfalfa hay

35

What causes head pressing in horses?

High levels of ammonia in the blood which can cause brain damage.

36

What are proteins composed of?

A chain of small units called amino acids, which contain nitrogen

37

What is the effect of eating wild cherry on horses?

Cyanide poisoning

38

Heavy work may increase the water intake by how much?

Up to 120%

39

A 1000 pound idle, mature horse that consumes 16 pounds of hay per day would need approximately how much water?

4-8 gallons

40

During what stage of gestation does the fetus increase most rapidly in size and in nutritional needs?

Last 1/3 of gestation

41

What part of alfalfa provides the most nutrition?

Its leaves

42

What is the average weight of a small bale of hay?

40-80 pounds

43

What are the 2 primary causes of iron loss?

Heavy parasite load or wounds

44

Molasses is quite low in protein and phosphorus but is a good source of what nutrient?

Energy

45

What type of horse is of the least concern to the nutritionist?

Non-pregnant, non-lactating mature idle horse

46

Name 3 vegetables that can be used as horse treats.

Carrots, potatoes, turnips, dried beet pulp

47

What is the most commonly used calcium and phosphorus supplement?

Dicalcium phosphate

48

How should trace mineralized salt be fed to horses?

Free choice

49

Which grain is the most commonly fed in Western US and Canada?

Barley

50

Name 2 ways milo can be processed as a feed.

Ground, crimped, or rolled

51

How should sodium chloride be provided to the horse?

Free choice

52

Which general type of hay would require more protein in the grain mixture?

Grasses

53

What are the 2 common types of soybean meal?

44% and 48-50% protein (44% has hulls, 50% does not have hulls)

54

Of the commonly used vegetable proteins, which contains the highest lysine content?

Soybean meal

55

Give 2 examples of how you would discourage fast eating horses.

Spread grain in thin layer, put large smooth stones in bottom of feeder, feed several times a day

56

How is the quality of dietary protein determined?

By the amino acid content

57

Sun-cured roughages are a good source of which vitamin?

Vitamin D

58

Name 3 problems that result from an energy deficiency in older horses.

Loss of weight, poor performance, poor condition, and poor reproductive performance

59

What is the most commonly fed legume hay?

Alfalfa

60

In nutrition, what does NE stand for?

Net Energy

61

What is there about a horse that makes it a non ruminating herbivore?

They eat fibrous feed and do not have a common rumen

62

When does the energy requirements of a pregnant mare increase the fastest?

During the last third of gestation

63

What happens if the horse 'goes off feed'?

He stops eating

64

Molasses is a good source of energy but low in what 2 nutrients?

Protein and phosphorus

65

What is the structural component in forages that is not digestible by horses?

Lignin

66

In feeding management, what is the wicking effect?

Uptake of ground moisture into a bale of hay

67

Name a way feed might be processed to aid in digestion for older horses or horses with poor teeth.

Ground, crimped, or pelleted

68

Name 2 grains that must be processed before feeding.

Rye, milo, barley, and wheat

69

What insect contains cantharidin?

Blister beetle

70

Which forage is often infected with a fungus which can cause abortions, prolonged gestation, thickened placenta, still births, and lack of milk production in mares?

Fescue

71

Name 3 vitamins that can be toxic if given in large amounts

Vitamins A, D, and K

72

What is often considered to be the most common form of malnutrition in horses in the US?

Obesity

73

What is another term for tocopherol?

Vitamin E

74

A lack of which vitamin causes night blindness?

Vitamin A

75

Name a product that is added to a horse feed to improve palatability, provide a good source of energy, and to reduce dust.

Molasses

76

Name 2 conditions which would cause a horse to be most prone to eating poisonous plants.

Little or no pasture, competition for food, time of year, hunger

77

What is the primary site for digestion and absorption of fats?

Small intestines

78

What percent of fat in the diet can a horse tolerate and use for energy?

10-15%

79

What is the form of stored fuel for exercise of high intensity and short duration?

Glycogen

80

How many mineral elements are required in diets of horses?

21

81

What is the maximum amount of concentrates that should be fed at any one feeding?

No more than .75% of a horse's body weight

82

The actual cause of heaves is unknown, but the condition is most often associated with the ingestion of what?

Damaged, dusty, or moldy hay

83

Chronic lacrimation (tearing) in a foal is from a deficiency of what vitamins?

Vitamin A

84

Why might there be low levels of carotene in hay that is stored for prolonged periods of time?

Carotene is easily oxidized

85

How can the likelihood of blister beetle poisoning be reduced when feeding alfalfa hay from the southwest?

Feed early season first cutting alfalfa

86

What are 5 forms of harvested forages?

Square bales, round bales, hay cubes, chopped hay, pelleted hay, and silage

87

What important nutrient must be consumed within the first 36 hours after birth?

Colostrum

88

What is the most commonly fed legume hay?

Alfalfa hay

89

What percent of protein should be in a suckling foal's creep feed?

16-18%

90

Name 2 groups of horses that have the greatest need for calcium.

Young foals, lactating mares

91

What is the most commonly used protein supplement and what age of horses would benefit from this the most?

Soybean meal, young growing horses

92

Name the 2 basic classifications of forages.

Legumes and grasses

93

What nutrients are harder for an older horse to digest?

Proteins, phosphorus, fiber

94

What is the nutrient that will be missed first in the diet?

Water

95

One milligram of carotene is equivalent to how much vitamin A?

400 internal units

96

What is the first step in balancing a ration?

Determine the nutritional needs of the horse

97

Name 2 factors that can influence the vitamin A content in hay.

Prolonged storage and severely weathered hay

98

The calcium to phosphorus ratio in the diet should always be at least what?

1:1

99

How long does it take most of the food particles found in the feces to pass through the digestive tract?

65 to 75 hours

100

What is the effect of prolonged overfeeding?

Obesity

101

Where is vitamin D formed?

IN the skin

102

Lysine is a type of what nutrient?

Protein (amino acid)

103

If you put extruded and pelleted feed each in a separate container of equal volume, which would weigh more?

Pelleted feeds may weigh twice as much as extruded feeds

104

There are considerable differences in density among horse feeds. Therefore, feeding measurements should not be by volume but by what method?

Feed by weight

105

If the precentage of protein in the form of lysine is higher in animal products such as dried skim milk and fish meal, why is soybean meal more commonly used?

Soybean meal is considerably less expensive

106

What factor is determined by the amount of seed heads of grass and the flowers of legumes present at the time of harvest?

Stage of maturity

107

What class of nutrients do thiamine, riboflavin, and folic acid belong to?

Vitamins

108

Typical grasses should not be harvested later than what stage of maturity?

Boot stage

109

What vitamin deficiency can cause excessive tearing of the eyes?

Vitamin A

110

What are the 6 basic nutrients?

Water, protein, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, vitamins

111

Anemia is the primary sign of what type of deficiency?

Iron

112

What part of a horse's diet is the primary source of energy?

Carbohydrates

113

What are the 2 classifications of amino acids?

Essential and non-essential

114

In rating the horse's body condition, what is the scoring range?

1 (poor) to 9 (extremely fat)

115

How much concentrate can be fed at one time?

Never more than .75% of the horse's body weight

116

What are oat groats?

Oats with the hulls removed

117

What is a by-product of sucrose refined from sugar cane, sugar beets, or from the manufacture of dried citrus pulp?

Molasses

118

Do most grains have more calcium or more phosphorus?

6-8 times more phosphorus

119

Which legume hay is often more moldy and dustier than grass hays?

Alfalfa

120

When buying or selling while using a hay analysis report, what factor should be a prime consideration?

RFV (relative feeding value)

121

What are the 3 major volatile fatty acids?

Acetate, propionate, butyrate

122

Approximately 80 percent of the body's phosphorus is contained where in the horse?

In the skeleton

123

What term describes the total amount of protein that is actually usable by the horse's system?

Digestible protein

124

Which grains are aided in digestion by rolling or breaking?

Small grain such as wheat and milo

125

Big head disease in a horse is caused by an imbalance of what 2 minerals?

Excessive phosphorus and low levels of calcium

126

What percent of fiber is absorbed in the small intestines?

15-25%

127

What element from the large intestine may help bacteria synthesize amino acids?

Nitrogen

128

Iron is an essential component of what oxygen-carrying compound in the body?

Hemoglobin in the blood

129

Six month old foals should be fed what percentage of protein?

At least 14%

130

An adult horse's maintenance diet should always contain at least what ratio of calcium and phosphorus?

1:1 or 2:1

131

A deficiency of which nutrient in young horses can cause poor growth, high feed-to-grain ratio, and general unthriftiness?

Protein

132

The habit of eating their grain without adequate chewing is called what?

Bolting their feed

133

What type of feed is high in phosphorus?

Wheat bran

134

The horse's body converts carotene into what?

Vitamin A

135

What does VFA stand for?

Volatile fatty acids

136

What 2 problems can result from a horse bolting its feed?

Digestive upsets and decreased nutrient efficiency of feed

137

What amino acid is often not present in adequate amounts in vegetable proteins and can affect the growth of an animal?

Lysine

138

What are the 6 main nutrients that a horse must have?

Protein, vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, water

139

What vitamin is necessary for the synthesis of calcium-binding protein and calcium absorption?

Vitamin D

140

Processing does not improve the digestibility of which types of grains?

Large grains such as corn or oats

141

What are the fat-soluble vitamins?

Vitamins A, D, E, and K

142

What is another name for sodium chloride?

Salt

143

An iodine deficient diet may cause what?

Goiters

144

Feeding high levels of which mineral can interfere with the absorption of calcium?

Phosphorus

145

What plant contains an anti-thiamine compound and may induce a thiamine deficiency in horses?

Bracken Fern

146

Define an essential amino acid

One that must be supplied in the diet

147

What aspect of the horse makes it particularly susceptible to molds, toxins, bacteria, and poisons in the feed supply?

Having only one stomach

148

Which nutrient is commonly involved as co-factors for the enzymes that convert fat and carbohydrates into energy?

Vitamins

149

What 2 conditions can occur when hot horses are given large quantities of cold water?

Colic or founder (laminitis)

150

Thiamin, riboflavin, biotin, and pantothenic acid are all types of what?

B Vitamins

151

Which nutrient is an important structural component for muscle tissue, growth, and tissue maintenance?

Protein

152

Hay stored for prolonged periods may have low levels of which vitamin?

Vitamin A

153

Which nutrient plays an important role in physiology of performance horses and is essential for fluid balance, nerve functions, muscle functions, and acid-base balance?

Minerals

154

When legumes and grass hays are harvested at the same stage of maturity, which hay will contain more digestible energy, calcium, protein, and vitamin A?

Legume hays

155

What is quidding?

Dropping partially chewed feed from the mouth

156

Plants do not contain vitamin A, they contain a substance that the body tissue can convert into vitamin A. What is this substance?

Carotene

157

What is the primary site of protein digestion?

Small intestine

158

Protein toxicity in horses does not occur because excess nitrogen is processed in what way?

Excreted in the urine

159

Which commonly used vegetable protein supplement has the highest lysine content?

Soybean meal

160

Chronic selenium toxicity can result in sloughing of hooves, loss of manes and tails and eventually death. What is the name of this condition?

Alkali disease

161

Dietary proteins are broken down into amino acids by what 2 methods?

Acid hydrolysis and protein splitting enzymes

162

Why can moldy sweet clover induce a vitamin K deficiency?

Because of an anti-vitamin K factor in the mold

163

Name the type of forage that can be added to grass pastures to make them more nutritious and to extend the grazing season.

Legume (clover, alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil)

164

What is the sum of all protein, fiber, nitrogen free extract, and fat in a feed ration?

TDN (Total digestible nutrients)

165

What is the most commonly used protein supplement and what age of horses would benefit from this most?

Soybean meal and young growing horses benefit most

166

What does DE stand for?

Digestible energy

167

Why can moldy sweet clover induce a vitamin K deficiency?

Because of an anti-vitamin K factor in the mold

168

What is the term for overeating disease?

Enterotoxemia

169

Name the vitamin that influences the amount of calcium absorbed from the small intestines.

Vitamin D

170

What portion of the diet is the primary source of energy?

Carbohydrates

171

Name 2 disadvantages of feeding straight oats for grain.

Cost per unit of energy and variations in quality

172

Describe the 2 main functions of the horse's mouth in the digestive process.

Masticate (chew) food and wetting food with saliva

173

What method of processing feeds forces ground feeds through a die under pressure, steam, and heat, and produces a feed that has the consistency of dry dog food?

Extruded

174

How many different minerals are required in the diet of horses and what are the 2 classifications of them?

21 different minerals classified as micro and macro minerals

175

How much more digestible energy is contained in grains than in hays?

Grains have 50-60% more

176

Grain processing may be roughly divided into 2 categories, name them.

Dry processing and wet processing

177

What are the organic compounds required in small amounts for the normal functioning of the body that are classified as fat soluble and water soluble?

Vitamins

178

Name 2 ways that barley and milo should be processed before using them in a horse feed.

Crimped or rolled (milo can also be ground)

179

What is the primary objective of most grain processing methods?

To improve the availability of starch

180

Pelleting hay can reduce the storage space requirements by how much?

Up to 75%

181

What are simple inorganic compounds that dissolve in water and are essential for many of the chemical processes?

Electrolytes

182

What are the 21 different elements found in organic ash of feeds after burning off the organic matter?

Minerals

183

Which feed by-product is made by drying the residual beet chips after the sugar has been extracted?

Beet pulp

184

What is frequently observed in foals raised in selenium deficient areas?

Muscle degeneration (white muscle disease)

185

What degenerates due to a selenium deficiency?

Muscles

186

What is a component of thyroxine and can cause goiter in foals if excessive or deficient amounts are fed?

Iodine

187

What may result in the foal if a mare is fed excessive levels of iodine?

Weak foals with goiters (enlarged thyroid), still born foals, hairless foals

188

What mineral deficiency can cause anemia?

Iron

189

When does a pregnant mare have the greatest nutritional requirements?

During the third trimester of her gestation period

190

What is the term for the unit of measure that describes the amount of energy needed by a horse and is equal to 1000 calories?

Megacalories

191

Name 4 functions of calcium in the body.

Bone formation, muscle activity, blood clotting, enzyme activation

192

Name the vitamin that is needed for blood coagulation.

Vitamin K

193

Bacteria in the small intestine naturally produce what vitamin?

Vitamin K

194

Hay can be stored for how long without losing more than 20% of its nutrients?

1-2 years

195

Name 2 things that energy toxicity can cause.

Obesity, decreased performance, decreased reproductive efficiency, horse more difficult to handle

196

Brewer's yeast is an excellent source of what?

B Vitamins

197

Other than bone formation, what other 2 functions is calcium necessary for?

Normal muscular activity, blood clotting, enzyme activation

198

Name 4 trace minerals.

Iodine, iron, zinc, selenium, sodium chloride, copper, manganese, flourine, lead

199

The formula of heart girth times body length is used to determine what?

Horse's weight

200

What is the term used to refer to the energy actually used by the animal?

Net energy

201

What term in a hay analysis is a measure of the cellulose, lignin, and other poorly digestible components and is used to determine the digestibility and nutritional value of hay?

ADF (Acid detergent fiber)

202

Why must milo be processed before using it in a feed for horses?

Grain is so small and hard that the horse cannot chew and efficiently digest the whole kernel

203

Why is the 48% soybean meal richer in protein content than other soybean meal?

Hulls of soybean are removed during processing and the hulls are relatively low in protein

204

What are the 2 most commonly used methods of evaluating the energy content in a feed?

TDN (total digestible nutrients) and DE (digestible energy)

205

What are 3 signs of a sodium chloride deficiency?

Depraved appetite, rough hair coat, reduced growth, development of licking habit, signs of dehydration, weight loss, reduced performance

206

Describe 4 methods of putting up harvested forages.

Square bales, big round bales, rectangular bales, silage, chopped hay (pelleted hay and hay cubes are prepared after harvest-not acceptable answers)

207

During high intensity exercise, what is an important energy source because it can be used anaerobically to produce energy rapidly?

Glycogen

208

Name 4 factors that influence the nutritional requirements of a horse

Size of horse, age, type of use, environment (cold weather increases energy needs), individual horse's metabolic rates

209

What do the initials TDN and DE stand for?

Total digestible nutrients, digestible energy

210

When horses are fed a hay/grain ration, how many hours does it take before 95% of the ingested food particles appears in the feces?

65-75 hours

211

Give 2 reasons why horses should be fed 2 or more meals daily.

Small stomach capacity, rapid movement of food through stomach

212

What is the recommended amount of grain needed for a high producing lactating mare?

1 to 1.5 pounds of grain per 100 pounds of her body weight

213

Name 3 minerals that make up the electrolyte balance of the horse.

Sodium, potassium, chloride

214

What are the digestible organic nutrients?

Proteins, fiber, nitrogen free extract, fat

215

What common forage poses problems if fed to pregnant mares?

Tall fescue infested with endophyte fungus Acremonium Coenophialum

216

What B vitamin improves poor quality hooves and any keratin structures of the hoof?

Biotin

217

Give 3 main functions of calcium.

Bone formation, blood clotting, muscle activity, enzyme activation

218

What makes essential amino acids different than nonessential amino acids?

Essential amino acids must be supplied by the diet and nonessential amino acids are synthesized by the body

219

What is an advantage of feeding extruded feeds over pelleted feeds?

There is more air trapped inside the extruded feed causing more bulk which in turn slows down the rate of intake by the horse. It lowers the chance of digestive disorders

220

What 4 electrolytes are lost in sweat and urine during physical exertion?

Sodium, chloride, potassium, and calcium

221

Name 4 major legumes.

Alfalfa, red clover, white clover, birdsfoot trefoil, lespedeza

222

Propionic and acetic acids are used for what purpose?

Helping to cure hay with high moisture levels (up to 35% moisture)

223

Name a plant that can induce a thiamin deficiency in horses if ingested

Bracken fern or mare's tail

224

Name 4 factors that influence the water needs of the horse.

Environmental temperature, activity (type and amount of work), function (lactation), food intake, and type of food

225

What should be the primary consideration in selecting horse hay because it reflects higher quality, greater intake, higher digestibility, and fewer concentrates will be needed to supplement the diet?

RFV (relative feeding value)

226

What term in a hay analysis report is a measure of cell wall content (which increases as a plant matures) and is an indirect measure of how readily a forage will be consumed?

NDF (neutral detergent fiber)

227

Lactating mares may increase their water intake by how much?

50-70%

228

What vitamin, fed along with selenium, helps prevent white muscle disease?

Vitamin E

229

Name 3 nutrients that are higher in legumes than in grass hays.

Digestible energy, calcium, protein, and vitamin A

230

What is the most commonly fed type of bran in North America?

Wheat bran

231

What is the method of estimating the composition of hay that is accurate, has the the shortest turn-around time, and is the most practical?

NIRS (near infrared reflectance spectroscopy)

232

Methods of estimating or analytically determining the nutrient content of forages include what 3 methods?

Visual appraisal, chemical analysis, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS)

233

Name the vitamins found in the fat soluble group.

Vitamins A, D, E, and K

234

What should not be fed to horses because it contains fusarium toxins that can cause brain damage or aflatoxins that cause liver damage?

Moldy corn

235

Horses obtain what nutrient from the action of ultraviolet light on compounds in the skin?

Vitamin D

236

Enterotoxemia, sometimes called colitis, is caused by toxins produced by what type of bacteria?

Clostridium perfingens

237

Big head disease in a horse is caused by what imbalance?

Excessive phosphorus and low levels of calcium

238

The ultraviolet rays of sunlight convert the dehydrocholesterol produced by the animal's body into what?

Vitamin D

239

Name 3 nutrients considered to be a part of the electrolytes lost during extreme prolonged work such as an endurance ride.

Potassium, sodium, chloride

240

How is the gross energy determined?

By igniting the feed in a bomb calorimeter and recording the amount of heat that is produced

241

What term is given to the period when 1/1- to 2/3 of plants are in bloom

Mid-bloom

242

What causes some animals to have white fat and others to have yellow fat?

Animals that store appreciate amounts of carotene will have yellow fat

243

What type of hay can cause an extensive amount of saliva excretion or slobbering disease?

Moldy red clover

244

What percentage of the total body's calcium content is contained in the skeleton?

99%

245

What bone disease may occur in horses fed low levels of calcium and high levels of phosphorus?

Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism (big head disease, Miller's disease)

246

Irradiated yeast and cod liver oil are supplements that provide high levels of what?

Vitamin D

247

When a horse's diet is lacking in long stemmed roughage, what vice is likely to develop?

Cribbing

248

What is a teratogenic plant?

Plant that can cause physical defects to its offspring

249

Which horse would require more water under similar conditions: a hard working horse or a lactating mare?

Hard working horse (12-15 gallons), lactating mare (9-11 gallons at peak lactation)

250

High quality silage can be fed to horses, but it should not replace more than what portion of the usually fed hay?

No more than 1/3 to 1/2 of the hay

251

Classify the acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and relative feeding value as low or high in good quality hay.

ADF and NDF should be low and RVF should be high

252

What is allotriophagy?

Eating of unnatural material

253

Horse rations are usually calculated on the basic fact that horses will eat what percentage of their body weight every day in dry matter?

2.5%

254

Name a calcium and phosphorus supplement that can be added to grain mixtures.

Dicalcium phosphate, defluorinated rock phosphorus and bone meal mixture, steamed bone meal, calcium carbonate (limestone), tricalcium phosphate, monocalcium phosphate, diammonium phosphate

255

What is the usual cause of geophagia?

Mineral deficiency

256

Name 2 vitamins not considered to be essential in the horse's diet.

Vitamin C and K

257

A deficiency of what 3 nutrients can cause rickets?

Calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D

258

Name 4 factors which affect digestion in the horse.

Processing of feed, level of intake, frequency of feedings, work, individuality

259

Which vitamin is often used in the treatment of epistaxis?

Vitamin C

260

How is the gross energy determined?

By igniting the feed in a bomb valorimeter and recording the amount of heat produced

261

What is a sweet feed?

Grain mix that contains molasses

262

What is a general term for a feed that contains grain, hay, and all needed supplements?

Complete feed or total diet

263

What is another term for ascorbic acid?

Vitamin c

264

The addition of which amino acid to the diet can increase growth rate?

Lysine

265

What is chyme?

Semi-digested food in the stomach

266

If a feed ration has protein of poor quality, what makes it a poor quality?

Protein in the ration has insufficient quantities of essential amino acids

267

Name 2 things that can cause a goiter.

Deficiency or excess of iodine

268

What is the most accurate method to assess the nutrient make-up of forages?

Chemcial analysis

269

Name an antioxidant substance.

Vitamin E or selenium

270

Name 3 of the most common oil meal protein supplements used for horses.

Soybean oil meal, linseed oil meal, cottonseed oil meal, sunflower oil meal

271

Name 2 nutrients that could cause insufficient hemoglobin in the horse's blood.

Iron, vitamin E, copper

272

Name the 5 main nutrients needed by the horse.

Water, energy (carbohydrates and fats), protein, vitamins, minerals

273

Name 2 characteristics of moldy hay

Musty smell, whitish in color, dusty

274

Name 8 types of grass hays

Barley, bermuda grass, bluegrass, blustern, fescue, oat, orchard grass, prairie grass, reed canary, rye grass, sudan grass, timothy

275

Name 3 cool season grass hays and 3 warm season grass hays.

Warm-- bahiagrass, bermudagrass, pangolograss, johnson grass
Cool -- timothy, smooth brome grass, canary grass, orchard grass, tall fescue, redtop

276

Name 5 ways forage can be processed.

Baled, dehydrated, pelleted, silage, cubed, haylage

277

Name 7 methods of processing grains.

Grinding, rolling, flaking, crimping, roasting, pelleting, soaking, steam rolling, extruded

278

Name 8 items listed on a hay analysis report.

Crude protein, dry matter, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, relative feeding value

279

Name the 10 essential amino acids.

Phenylalanine, tryptophan, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, valine, histidine, theonine, arginine

280

Name 3 minerals found in trace mineral salt.

Sodium chloride, iodine, copper, manganese, cobalt, zinc, and iron

281

Name 6 plants poisonous to the horse

Locoweed

282

Name 4 important functions of water in the horse's body

Produces saliva, necessary to life and shape of cells, regulates body temperature, acts as chemical reactor in digestion and metabolism, lubricates joints, carries nutrients to and waste away from cells

283

What are 4 signs of nutrient deficiencies in horses?

Chewing wood; eating dirt, sand, and gravel; tail biting; eating bark of trees

284

What are the 8 factors that should be reported by hay analysis testing?

Crude protein, dry matter, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, ADF (acid detergent fiber), NDF (neutral detergent fiber), RFV (relative feeding value)