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Flashcards in SHB Category: D, Anatomy II Deck (151)
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1

Name the only place that does not have sweat glands on the horse's body

Legs

2

When do the teeth stop growing?

In the early 20's

3

How many breaths per minute does a horse at rest usually have?

8-16

4

How long is the esophagus in a mature horse?

50-60 inches

5

What is the first part of the digestive system?

Mouth

6

What is the term for the hoof and all of its contents?

Foot

7

Name the 2 types of vision possessed by the horse.

Monocular and binocular

8

Name the 3 primary specialized sensory organs of the horse's nervous system

Eyes, ears, nose

9

Give 2 functions, other than oxygenating blood, of the respiratory system

Temperature regulation, production of sound

10

Name 4 things that induce a higher rate of hoof growth

Warm temperature, irritation or injury to sensitive structures, increased exercise or wear, optimum level of feed intake, high heart rate, age of animal (younger grows faster), stimulation of sensitive structures by massage, counter-irritants or blisters

11

What is the function of the horse's respiratory system?

Take in oxygen & expels carbon dioxide from the body

12

Name the 3 specialized sensory organs of the horse.

Eyes, ears, nose

13

What is produced by the brain's pineal gland in response to the absence of light?

Melatonin

14

What does the kidneys filtrate?

Urine

15

What term describes the study of hormones & their effects?

Endocrinology

16

Name the system that is responsible for providing oxygen to the horse's body.

Respiratory system

17

How often does the horse shed its body hair?

Twice a year

18

What organ functions as a blood filtering system, responsible for the excretion of waste products?

Kidneys

19

What term describes the ductless glands that produce hormones that influence various functions in the horse's body?

Endocrine system

20

In what general area would you find the Achilles' tendon on a horse?

Hock area

21

Name the part of the horse's digestive system responsible for prehension

Upper lip

22

Name the 2 types of diarthrosis joints

Ginglymus (hinge joint) & endoarthrosis (ball & socket joint)

23

Name 3 structures that light must pass through before it reaches the lens

Cornea, iris, pupil

24

Abut 65% of the digestive capacity of the horse is where?

Cecum & colon (lower gut)

25

What is another term for the buccal cavity?

mouth

26

What is spasmodic muscle contractions that produce heat to help maintain body temperature?

Shivering

27

What are known as the "filters" in the circulatory system?

Lymph nodes

28

Where is the cecum located?

At the junction of the small & large intestine

29

What is flexible, distensible, muscular storage organ for urine?

Bladder

30

What is the long noncollapsible tube that connects the pharynx to the lungs at the point where they branch from the bronchi?

Trachea

31

What is the approximate length of the horse's esophagus?

50 - 60 inches

32

What is another name for the air sacs found in the horse's lungs?

Alveoli

33

What term describes red blood cells?

Erythrocytes

34

Name the accessory organs that aid in digestion

Teeth, salivary glands, liver and pancreas

35

What is the primary function of the respiratory system?

To oxygenate the blood

36

Describe what happens when the horse's lacrimal duct is plugged.

Tears from the horse's eye pour out onto the face

37

What is the term for the blood stored in the spleen?

Splanic reservoir

38

Contraction of what membrane moves across the eye, wiping foreign substances off the cornea?

Nictitating membrane (haw)

39

Name the 2 structures that control the action of the horse's cannon, pastern & foot action

Ligaments & tendons

40

What are the 2 major constituents of the horse's blood?

Plasma & cells

41

What is the site of the majority of nutrient absorption?

Small intestines

42

At what age does the Galvayne's groove appear at the gum line of the upper corner incisor?

10 years

43

What part of the horse's digestive system is comparable to the rumen of cattle?

Cecum

44

What is the outer layer of cells on the hoof that give the wall a glossy appearance?

Stratum tectorium

45

What is the pigment that controls a horse's body color?

Melanin

46

What is the main blood supply to the digestive tract?

Anterior mesenteric artery

47

What aspect of the horse's digestive system makes it particularly susceptible to molds, toxins, bacteria & poisons in the feed supply?

Having only one stomach

48

In a 24 hour period, an adult horse will produce how many pounds of feces?

28 - 50 lbs

49

What is minute volume in relation to the horse's respiratory system?

Total amount of air expired in one minute

50

What part of the respiratory system is the functional units of the lungs where gas exchange actually occurs?

Alveoli

51

What are the 5 associated organs which aid in the digestive process?

Teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver & pancreas

52

The lungs are filled primarily by the action of a dome-shaped muscle called what?

Diaphragm

53

The number of breaths taken in per minute is usually called the respiratory rate or what else?

Respiratory frequency

54

What nerve is responsible for conveying the sense of smell?

Olfactory nerve

55

What is the part of the circulatory system that carries blood to the outer parts of the body, such as legs?

Peripheral circulatory system

56

What percent of the frog is water?

50%

57

Which vertebrae are connected to the hip bones of the horse?

Sacral vertebrae

58

Most of the weight of the horse is supported on what portion of the hoof?

Hoof wall

59

What is the main function of platelets in the blood?

Help with blood clotting process

60

Horses use monocular & binocular vision, which one is generally better developed?

Monocular

61

Which body system functions to exchange oxygen & carbon dioxide between the animal & the environment?

Respiratory system

62

What system is responsible for the controlling important functions, such as growth, reproduction, metabolism & digestion?

Endocrine system

63

What is the largest cavity in the heart?

Left ventricles

64

What is the spinous process of the thoratic vertebrae?

Upper surface of the spine

65

What term describes part of the skull that encloses & protects the brain as well as supports many sensory organs?

Cranial cavity

66

The amount of air inspired or expired during normal breathing is called what?

Tidal volume

67

Why can a horse sleep standing up?

Because of the stay mechanism (apparatus)

68

What provides a blood filtering system that is responsible for the excretion of many waste products from the body?

Kidneys

69

What triggers the horse to grow a winter coat?

Shorter days

70

What percent of the hoof wall is water?

25%

71

What muscle has the greatest increase in blood flow during exercise?

Diaphragm

72

In which 2 body systems does the pancreas belong?

Digestive and endocrine

73

The joint is lubricated by a secretion called what?

Synovial fluid

74

As a horse ages, how does the shape of the chewing surfaces of the incisors change?

From oval shape to triangular shape

75

What is the basic contractile unit of skeletal muscle?

Sarcomere

76

The product of tidal volume and respiratory frequency is called what?

Minute volume

77

What are the 3 parts of the central nervous system? (CNS)

Brain, brain stem, and spinal cord

78

What is the cartilage trap that prevents food from entering the larynx during swallowing?

Epiglottis

79

What is composed of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets?

Blood

80

Name the parts of the small intestine.

Duodenum, jejunum, ileum

81

What are the small sacs of fluid in or near joints which serve as lubrication?

Bursae

82

What is the term for the total amount of air inspired or expired in a minute?

Minute volume

83

Name the 7 points of the pelvic limbs.

Sacroiliac, stifle, fetlock, coffin, hip, hock, pastern

84

Where are sebaceous glands located?

Same places as hair follicles

85

What re the 3 major components of the cardiovascular system?

Blood, blood vessels, heart

86

What term describes the gaseous subunits that line the lungs of the horse?

Alveoli or air sacs

87

What percent of the sole of the hoof is water?

33%

88

Which side of the heart pumps blood to the lungs?

Right atrium and Right ventricle

89

Approximately 80% of the body's phosphorus is in what part of the horse's body?

Skeleton

90

What is the term for the oxygenated blood returning from the lungs?

Pulmonary circulation

91

What is the term for true joints that have a joint cavity and synovial membrane?

Diarthrosis

92

Which artery supplies all the arterial blood to the small intestines, great colon, and cecum?

Cranial mesenteric artery

93

How long is the cecum?

3-4 feet

94

What is the main physiological function of white blood cells?

Help immune system by defending against foreign cells such as bacteria

95

Which vessels are the main vessels used to carry blood away from the heart?

Arteries

96

What is the function of the nictitating membrane?

Wipes foreign matter from the eye

97

The heart can be divided into right and left halves, each consisting of two chambers called what?

Atrium and ventricle

98

What are osteoblasts?

Bone forming cells

99

Name the muscle that lies directly under the horse's skin which allows the horse to shake off a fly that lands on the skin

Panniculus muscle

100

Where is the primary site of protein digestion?

Small intestine

101

What are the 2 main functions of the mouth in the digestive process?

Mastication (chewing) and wetting food with saliva

102

Approximately how many quarts of urine does a horse produce per day?

4-7

103

Give 2 types of joints found in the horse's leg and give an example of each.

Ginglymus or Hinge joint: Elbow

Endoarthrosis or ball and socket: Hip joint

104

What hormone, produced by the thyroid gland, is activated when the blood calcium is too high in the horse?

Calcitonin

105

The angle of the shoulder and pastern, the elasticity of the suspensory and sesamoid ligament, and movement of the hoof wall all help to absorb what?

Concussion

106

What is the field of vision in degrees for each eye?

215 degrees

107

What system produces chemical substances called hormones?

Endocrine system

108

What part of the hoof correspond to the human cuticle?

Periople

109

Which body system would contain these: Leydig cells, seroli cells, and androgen binding protein?

Endocrine or reproductive systems

110

What is the main physiological function of red blood cells?

Transport oxygen in the blood to the cells

111

What are the 3 basic types of muscle fibers?

Type I,
Type IIA and Type IIB

112

Which side of the heart pumps oxygenated blood throughout the body?

Left atrium and left ventricle

113

In what age group is hoof growth the greatest?

Foals

114

What is the liquid in which the cellular elements of blood are suspended?

Plasma

115

What are the 2 layers that make up the horse's skin?

Dermis and epidermis

116

What does the lachrymal apparatus produce?

Tears

117

In the horse, where does digestion begin?

Mouth

118

What are the vital signs of a horse at rest?

Temperature 99-101 degrees, Pulse 35 beats per minute, Respiration 8-10 breaths per minute

119

Identify the part of the blood that is involved in the blood clotting process

Platelets

120

What is the function of the thyroid gland?

Controls metabolic rate of the body

121

What protein is the main ingredient of hair and the hoof horn?

Keratin

122

What is the purpose of synovial fluid?

To lubricate the joints

123

What are 3 function of the kidneys?

Blood filtering, excretion of many waste products, water balance, pH and electrolytes, cleanse blood and stabilize composition of blood.

124

When does the third permanent molar erupt?

3 1/2 to 4 year old

125

What are the normal ranges of the horse's temperature, pulse, and respiration rates?

Temperature: 99 to 101.5 degrees

Pulse: 30 to 60 beats/minute

Respiration: 8-16 breaths/minute

126

Where in the horse's body would you find the turbinate bones and which one of the sense are the associated with?

Found in the nostrils, contribute to the accuracy of the sense of smell

127

What does the parathyroid gland control?

Calcium and phosphorus levels

128

What does cornify mean?

To turn into horn

129

What is high-energy fuel used in high intensity exercise, is the ultimate source of all energy for muscular contraction, and can be synthesized from fats and carbohydrates?

ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

130

What term describes the amount of air inspired or expired by the horse during one normal breath?

Tidal volume

131

What is the most widely used cardiovascular response variable that can be measured in horses?

Heart rate

132

What is a by-product of anaerobic work that is released from muscles into the blood, is removed from the body by the liver, and its accumulation causes muscle soreness and stiffness 24-48 hours after an intense workout?

Lactic acid

133

What actions do the diastole and systole refer to?

Relaxation/dilation of the heart and contraction of the heart

134

Which ribs have costal cartilage?

Only the 1st eight ribs (called true ribs) that connect to the sternum

135

What term describes the point in exercise at which lactic acid begins to accumulate in the muscle and spills over into the blood stream and occurs at an average heart rate of 150?

Anaerobic threshhold

136

What type of cartilage connects the true ribs to the sternum?

Costal cartilages

137

What substances give color to the skin and hair?

Pigment gives skin its color, Melanin granules give color to hair

138

What is a form of stored fuel for exercise of high intensity and relatively short duration and does not require oxygen to be utilized as a fuel source during intense exercise?

Glycogen

139

What is the portion of the myofibril that lies between 2 successive Z-lines and is the basic contractile unit of skeletal muscle?

Sarcomere

140

Name the 3 layers of the heart.

Pericardium, myocardium, and endocardium

141

The sarcoplasmic reticulum is extremely important in muscle contraction through the release and uptake of calcium ions, what is the common term for the sarcoplasmic reticulum?

Calcium pump

142

What is the membrane lining the marrow cavity of bones?

Endosteum

143

What general area of the horse's digestive tract serves as a fermentation vat?

Large intestines

144

Name the vitamin that the horse's body requires for the proper coagulation of its blood.

Vitamin K

145

Name the 3 channels of each nasal passage in the horse.

Dorsal meatus, middle meatus, ventral meatus

146

What does the lachrymal apparatus produce?

Tears

147

What compound is responsible for the red color of blood?

Hemoglobin

148

When looking at the bottom of the horse's foot, what section of the wall is between the toe and the heel?

Quarter

149

During exercise, the oxygen needs of the tissue increases dramatically. Name 2 ways the body responds to meet these increased needs.

More rapid breathing, breathing more deeply.

150

What is the function of the bars of the feet?

Help support the horse's foot and keep it open at the heels?

151

Name 4 parts of the foot other than the hoof.

Underlying corium (dermis), skin between the bulbs of the heels, digital cushion, distal phalanx and its cartilages, distal end of the 2nd phalanx, navicular bone, coffin joint, ligaments, tendons, vessels, and nerves