Flashcards in SHB Category: D, Anatomy II Deck (151)
Name the only place that does not have sweat glands on the horse's body
When do the teeth stop growing?
In the early 20's
How many breaths per minute does a horse at rest usually have?
How long is the esophagus in a mature horse?
What is the first part of the digestive system?
What is the term for the hoof and all of its contents?
Name the 2 types of vision possessed by the horse.
Monocular and binocular
Name the 3 primary specialized sensory organs of the horse's nervous system
Eyes, ears, nose
Give 2 functions, other than oxygenating blood, of the respiratory system
Temperature regulation, production of sound
Name 4 things that induce a higher rate of hoof growth
Warm temperature, irritation or injury to sensitive structures, increased exercise or wear, optimum level of feed intake, high heart rate, age of animal (younger grows faster), stimulation of sensitive structures by massage, counter-irritants or blisters
What is the function of the horse's respiratory system?
Take in oxygen & expels carbon dioxide from the body
Name the 3 specialized sensory organs of the horse.
Eyes, ears, nose
What is produced by the brain's pineal gland in response to the absence of light?
What does the kidneys filtrate?
What term describes the study of hormones & their effects?
Name the system that is responsible for providing oxygen to the horse's body.
How often does the horse shed its body hair?
Twice a year
What organ functions as a blood filtering system, responsible for the excretion of waste products?
What term describes the ductless glands that produce hormones that influence various functions in the horse's body?
In what general area would you find the Achilles' tendon on a horse?
Name the part of the horse's digestive system responsible for prehension
Name the 2 types of diarthrosis joints
Ginglymus (hinge joint) & endoarthrosis (ball & socket joint)
Name 3 structures that light must pass through before it reaches the lens
Cornea, iris, pupil
Abut 65% of the digestive capacity of the horse is where?
Cecum & colon (lower gut)
What is another term for the buccal cavity?
What is spasmodic muscle contractions that produce heat to help maintain body temperature?
What are known as the "filters" in the circulatory system?
Where is the cecum located?
At the junction of the small & large intestine
What is flexible, distensible, muscular storage organ for urine?
What is the long noncollapsible tube that connects the pharynx to the lungs at the point where they branch from the bronchi?
What is the approximate length of the horse's esophagus?
50 - 60 inches
What is another name for the air sacs found in the horse's lungs?
What term describes red blood cells?
Name the accessory organs that aid in digestion
Teeth, salivary glands, liver and pancreas
What is the primary function of the respiratory system?
To oxygenate the blood
Describe what happens when the horse's lacrimal duct is plugged.
Tears from the horse's eye pour out onto the face
What is the term for the blood stored in the spleen?
Contraction of what membrane moves across the eye, wiping foreign substances off the cornea?
Nictitating membrane (haw)
Name the 2 structures that control the action of the horse's cannon, pastern & foot action
Ligaments & tendons
What are the 2 major constituents of the horse's blood?
Plasma & cells
What is the site of the majority of nutrient absorption?
At what age does the Galvayne's groove appear at the gum line of the upper corner incisor?
What part of the horse's digestive system is comparable to the rumen of cattle?
What is the outer layer of cells on the hoof that give the wall a glossy appearance?
What is the pigment that controls a horse's body color?
What is the main blood supply to the digestive tract?
Anterior mesenteric artery
What aspect of the horse's digestive system makes it particularly susceptible to molds, toxins, bacteria & poisons in the feed supply?
Having only one stomach
In a 24 hour period, an adult horse will produce how many pounds of feces?
28 - 50 lbs
What is minute volume in relation to the horse's respiratory system?
Total amount of air expired in one minute
What part of the respiratory system is the functional units of the lungs where gas exchange actually occurs?
What are the 5 associated organs which aid in the digestive process?
Teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver & pancreas
The lungs are filled primarily by the action of a dome-shaped muscle called what?
The number of breaths taken in per minute is usually called the respiratory rate or what else?
What nerve is responsible for conveying the sense of smell?
What is the part of the circulatory system that carries blood to the outer parts of the body, such as legs?
Peripheral circulatory system
What percent of the frog is water?
Which vertebrae are connected to the hip bones of the horse?
Most of the weight of the horse is supported on what portion of the hoof?
What is the main function of platelets in the blood?
Help with blood clotting process
Horses use monocular & binocular vision, which one is generally better developed?
Which body system functions to exchange oxygen & carbon dioxide between the animal & the environment?
What system is responsible for the controlling important functions, such as growth, reproduction, metabolism & digestion?
What is the largest cavity in the heart?
What is the spinous process of the thoratic vertebrae?
Upper surface of the spine
What term describes part of the skull that encloses & protects the brain as well as supports many sensory organs?
The amount of air inspired or expired during normal breathing is called what?
Why can a horse sleep standing up?
Because of the stay mechanism (apparatus)
What provides a blood filtering system that is responsible for the excretion of many waste products from the body?
What triggers the horse to grow a winter coat?
What percent of the hoof wall is water?
What muscle has the greatest increase in blood flow during exercise?
In which 2 body systems does the pancreas belong?
Digestive and endocrine
The joint is lubricated by a secretion called what?
As a horse ages, how does the shape of the chewing surfaces of the incisors change?
From oval shape to triangular shape
What is the basic contractile unit of skeletal muscle?
The product of tidal volume and respiratory frequency is called what?
What are the 3 parts of the central nervous system? (CNS)
Brain, brain stem, and spinal cord
What is the cartilage trap that prevents food from entering the larynx during swallowing?
What is composed of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets?
Name the parts of the small intestine.
Duodenum, jejunum, ileum
What are the small sacs of fluid in or near joints which serve as lubrication?
What is the term for the total amount of air inspired or expired in a minute?
Name the 7 points of the pelvic limbs.
Sacroiliac, stifle, fetlock, coffin, hip, hock, pastern
Where are sebaceous glands located?
Same places as hair follicles
What re the 3 major components of the cardiovascular system?
Blood, blood vessels, heart
What term describes the gaseous subunits that line the lungs of the horse?
Alveoli or air sacs
What percent of the sole of the hoof is water?
Which side of the heart pumps blood to the lungs?
Right atrium and Right ventricle
Approximately 80% of the body's phosphorus is in what part of the horse's body?
What is the term for the oxygenated blood returning from the lungs?
What is the term for true joints that have a joint cavity and synovial membrane?
Which artery supplies all the arterial blood to the small intestines, great colon, and cecum?
Cranial mesenteric artery
How long is the cecum?
What is the main physiological function of white blood cells?
Help immune system by defending against foreign cells such as bacteria
Which vessels are the main vessels used to carry blood away from the heart?
What is the function of the nictitating membrane?
Wipes foreign matter from the eye
The heart can be divided into right and left halves, each consisting of two chambers called what?
Atrium and ventricle
What are osteoblasts?
Bone forming cells
Name the muscle that lies directly under the horse's skin which allows the horse to shake off a fly that lands on the skin
Where is the primary site of protein digestion?
What are the 2 main functions of the mouth in the digestive process?
Mastication (chewing) and wetting food with saliva
Approximately how many quarts of urine does a horse produce per day?
Give 2 types of joints found in the horse's leg and give an example of each.
Ginglymus or Hinge joint: Elbow
Endoarthrosis or ball and socket: Hip joint
What hormone, produced by the thyroid gland, is activated when the blood calcium is too high in the horse?
The angle of the shoulder and pastern, the elasticity of the suspensory and sesamoid ligament, and movement of the hoof wall all help to absorb what?
What is the field of vision in degrees for each eye?
What system produces chemical substances called hormones?
What part of the hoof correspond to the human cuticle?
Which body system would contain these: Leydig cells, seroli cells, and androgen binding protein?
Endocrine or reproductive systems
What is the main physiological function of red blood cells?
Transport oxygen in the blood to the cells
What are the 3 basic types of muscle fibers?
Type IIA and Type IIB
Which side of the heart pumps oxygenated blood throughout the body?
Left atrium and left ventricle
In what age group is hoof growth the greatest?
What is the liquid in which the cellular elements of blood are suspended?
What are the 2 layers that make up the horse's skin?
Dermis and epidermis
What does the lachrymal apparatus produce?
In the horse, where does digestion begin?
What are the vital signs of a horse at rest?
Temperature 99-101 degrees, Pulse 35 beats per minute, Respiration 8-10 breaths per minute
Identify the part of the blood that is involved in the blood clotting process
What is the function of the thyroid gland?
Controls metabolic rate of the body
What protein is the main ingredient of hair and the hoof horn?
What is the purpose of synovial fluid?
To lubricate the joints
What are 3 function of the kidneys?
Blood filtering, excretion of many waste products, water balance, pH and electrolytes, cleanse blood and stabilize composition of blood.
When does the third permanent molar erupt?
3 1/2 to 4 year old
What are the normal ranges of the horse's temperature, pulse, and respiration rates?
Temperature: 99 to 101.5 degrees
Pulse: 30 to 60 beats/minute
Respiration: 8-16 breaths/minute
Where in the horse's body would you find the turbinate bones and which one of the sense are the associated with?
Found in the nostrils, contribute to the accuracy of the sense of smell
What does the parathyroid gland control?
Calcium and phosphorus levels
What does cornify mean?
To turn into horn
What is high-energy fuel used in high intensity exercise, is the ultimate source of all energy for muscular contraction, and can be synthesized from fats and carbohydrates?
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
What term describes the amount of air inspired or expired by the horse during one normal breath?
What is the most widely used cardiovascular response variable that can be measured in horses?
What is a by-product of anaerobic work that is released from muscles into the blood, is removed from the body by the liver, and its accumulation causes muscle soreness and stiffness 24-48 hours after an intense workout?
What actions do the diastole and systole refer to?
Relaxation/dilation of the heart and contraction of the heart
Which ribs have costal cartilage?
Only the 1st eight ribs (called true ribs) that connect to the sternum
What term describes the point in exercise at which lactic acid begins to accumulate in the muscle and spills over into the blood stream and occurs at an average heart rate of 150?
What type of cartilage connects the true ribs to the sternum?
What substances give color to the skin and hair?
Pigment gives skin its color, Melanin granules give color to hair
What is a form of stored fuel for exercise of high intensity and relatively short duration and does not require oxygen to be utilized as a fuel source during intense exercise?
What is the portion of the myofibril that lies between 2 successive Z-lines and is the basic contractile unit of skeletal muscle?
Name the 3 layers of the heart.
Pericardium, myocardium, and endocardium
The sarcoplasmic reticulum is extremely important in muscle contraction through the release and uptake of calcium ions, what is the common term for the sarcoplasmic reticulum?
What is the membrane lining the marrow cavity of bones?
What general area of the horse's digestive tract serves as a fermentation vat?
Name the vitamin that the horse's body requires for the proper coagulation of its blood.
Name the 3 channels of each nasal passage in the horse.
Dorsal meatus, middle meatus, ventral meatus
What does the lachrymal apparatus produce?
What compound is responsible for the red color of blood?
When looking at the bottom of the horse's foot, what section of the wall is between the toe and the heel?
During exercise, the oxygen needs of the tissue increases dramatically. Name 2 ways the body responds to meet these increased needs.
More rapid breathing, breathing more deeply.
What is the function of the bars of the feet?
Help support the horse's foot and keep it open at the heels?