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Flashcards in SHB Category: L, Stable Equipment Deck (254)
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What type of stall door is the most suited for safety and ease of operation?

Sliding doors


What is used to clean out dirt and debris from the hoof?

Hoof pick


What is the recommended floor covering for a horse's trailer?

Rubber mats


What is the most common type of pre-sized horse shoe?

Keg shoe


What is the most popular stall flooring material?

Hard packed clay


Name the type of stall bedding that is the most absorbent of all materials used for bedding horses.

Peat moss


Name the grooming tool used to remove excess water and perspiration from wet or sweating horses.

Sweat scraper


WHat is the most dangerous type of wire that you can used for horse fencing?

Barbed wire


What is the least glamorous aspect of caring for horses?

Stall maintenance or cleaning stalls


What part of the hoof bears most of the weight of the horse?

Hoof wall


How much is a healthy hoof expected to grow per month?

1/8" to 1/2" per month


What are 2 types of sliding doors?

Full wooden, half wood and half bars, full mesh


What farrier tool is used to level the bearing surface of the foot and finish the clinchers?

Tang rasp


What is the life expectancy of a pressure treated Douglas Fir wood fence post?

20-25 years


When properly fitted and the cinch is drawn tight, how much space should lie between the withers and the fork of a western saddle?

Enough space to easily insert two fingers


What is one of the major keys to comfortable trailering for a horse particularly in the summer?

Air movement


What piece of equipment is used to prevent cuts to the head and poll when trailering a horse?

Head bumper


Name 2 functions of a stall guard.

Allows more air circulation into stall and allows horse to hang its head over or out of a stall that has a solid door


What is the recommended size for an arena?

120x200 feet


Describe the primary function of the creep-feeder.

Structure designed to allow only foals to feed, without interference of the mare


What is the life expectancy of an untreated Yellow poplar wood fence post?

2-7 years


When rotating pastures, how long should horses be removed from the pasture before returning in order to maintain a good forage regrowth?

At least 4 weeks


What is the determining factor in the ratio of top to bottom line of the neck?

Slope of the shoulder (more sloping shoulder, top line gets longer)


Untreated fence posts made from what type of wood have the longest life expectancy?

Osage orange


What is the minimum size of an arena?

60x100 feet


What is the minimum ceiling height for a covered or indoor arena?

14 feet


What is the ceiling height recommended for an indoor arena?

14 feet (16 for jumpers)


Name the type of bedding capable of reaching a temperature of 300 degrees F in one minute after a fire starts.

Oat straw


Name 2 types of lighting fixtures commonly found in the stable area.

Incandescent bulbs, fluorescent tubes


Which horse shoe is larger, #0 or #3?

#3 is larger (larger the number, larger the shoe)


What are the wooden, rawhide, canvas, leather, metal or fiberglass containers used to carry equipment and supplies on a pack saddle?



What substance is harder than any other substance except diamonds and is used to double or triple the life of a shoe?



What is the recommended width of a horse stall door?

Minimum of 4 feet wide


Name 3 types of pads used when shoeing a horse.

Leather, plastic, hospital plate, combination of leather and plastic


What farrier's tool is used to level the hoof wall after it has been trimmed with the nippers?



What is the most widely used pack saddle?

Crossbuck (Sawbuck)


What is one disadvantage of a partial divider in a horse trailer?

It may allow injury to other horses by being stepped on by its travelling companion


From what 2 points do you measure to determine the size of an English saddle?

From saddle nail to mid-point of the cantle


How often should water be offered to a horse when trailering it for long distances?

Every 3-4 hours


Name 3 types of breeding contracts.

Stallion service contract, foal sharing agreement, mare lease


WHat is the best way to renovate grass pastures?

Introduce an adapted legume into the existing sod


What type of trailer is rapidly becoming the most popular trailer type in the industry because it allows horses to ride more easily, with significantly less trailering stress and horses are mores table during stops and starts?

Slant load trailers


What is one disadvantage of a solid divider in a horse trailer?

Horse may not have adequate width to brace itself


What is the name of the sharp bevelled headed horse shoe nail used to increase traction on icy surfaces?



What is the advantage of using a double rigged cinch on a cross buck pack saddle?

It helps keep the back cinch from sliding backwards


Why should mangers in tie stalls be slanted, as the descend from top to bottom?

So horses will not hit their knees


Name the horseshoer's tool that is used to widen the nail hole in a horse shoe.



Other than the 2 traditional pack saddles, name one other type of saddle that can be used for packing.

Western stock saddle or McClellan (old army saddle)


Define balacne as it applies to horse shoeing.

Equal weight distribution around the center of gravity of the horse's hoof.


What is the preferred source of nitrogen fertilizer for grass pastures?

Ammonium Nitrate


THe SMP buffer pH measures how readily the soil will change PH when limestone is applied, what is this test commonly called on soil test reports?

Lime index


What is another name for the farrier's tool called pull-offs?



What is the substance that is sometimes welded to the bottom of the horse shoe to increase traction?



What can be used on a race horse's shoe to help prevent the track surface from burning the ergot area?

Block (causes the feet to break over faster)


What are 2 types of trailer hitches used on horse trailers?

Bumper-pull and gooseneck hitches


What type of English saddle is recommended if you are going to be jumping with only a little flat work?

Close contact saddle


What are the standard sizes for trailer balls?

1 7/8 inch to 2 1/4 inch


What type of hammer is used for making and shaping shoes?

Rounding hammer


What is the most limiting factor in the construction of new horse facilities?



Which type of stall is not used as much as they were in the past?

Tie stalls


What type of shoe is used to elevate the heels of a horse that is confined to stall rest?

Patten shoe


Name the horseshoe that has a one-quarter inch extension at the outside of the heel, used to correct a cow-hocked condition.

Horseshoe with a trailer


What is the manta used for?

Throw over the load of a pack saddle to cover and protect it


What provides a safety measure of protection for the horse in a trailer in case the rear door opens before you want it to?

Butt bar or butt chain


Name an enclosure designed to allow only the foal to feed without interference from its dam.

Creep feed


What is the amount of land required for 3 horses under common conditions?

6-9 acres (2-3 acres per horse)


What trimming procedure would you use to correct a splay footed horse?

Trim the outer half of the hoof lower than the inside


Name 2 ways to correct defects in the way of going.

Corrective trimming and corrective shoeing


Name the blacksmith's tool used to cut hot metals.



Name 2 different types of panniers.

Wooden box (grub), rawhide, heavy canvas, canvas and metal


What type of shoe allows a horse that is used in barrel racing to pivot on the shoe and maintain a toe grip regardless of where the foot breaks over?

Polo shoe


What are the 2 basic types of pack saddles?

Crossbuck (sawbuck) and Decker


Name a non-leverage bit that does not apply pressure to the horse's poll.

Snaffle bit (bosal is not acceptable)


In keg shoes, what is the difference between a cold and hot shoe?

Cold shoe- are finished (holes punched and heels cut) Hot shoe- are unfinished (need holes punched and heels cut or added special structures)


Why should you wrap trees in a horse pasture with old fence wire?

So horses don't chew the bark off the trees and kill them


Which type of stall is not used as much as they were in the past?

Tie stall


What is the unique feature of the 'happy mouth' bit?

It has a soft rubber, apple flavored mouthpiece


Which type of pasture will produce more forage yield, grasses or grass and legume mixtures?



Which is usually the biggest mistake made in the construction of horse facilities

Inadequate ventilation


Where should a saddle be placed on the horse's back, regardless of the type of the saddle?

Girth should be about 4 inches behind the point of elbow


What is the last piece of equipment used when securing an entire load on a pack animal?

Lash cinch with a half inch lash rope 45 feet long


What factor is just as important in a horse trailer as it is when building a barn?

Proper ventilation


The black asphalt paint on Thoroughbred breeding farm fences will last about how long?

8 years


Define balance as it applies to horse shoeing

Equal weight distribution around the center of gravity of the horse's limb


What is the proper function of the curb strap or curb chain on the horse's bridle?

Prevents injury to the roof of the horse's mouth when too much pressure is applied on the reins


Excess dead sole is removed by what instrument?

Hoof knife


Name 2 pieces of safety equipment that should be located by the master electrical outlet in a barn.

Fire extinguisher and water hose always connected to water


What is the recommended height of an indoor arena used for jumping?

16 feet


Why should a potential horse farm site have a slope of 2-6%?

Good drainage


What part of a pack saddle keeps it from sliding forward?



What is the name of the sharp bevelled headed horse shoe nail used to increase traction on icy surfaces?



What can be used on a race horse's shoes to help prevent the track surface from burning the ergot area?

Blocks (causes the feet to break over faster)


What is the biggest disadvantage of housing horses in run-in sheds?

Impossible to individually control diet and exercise


How long would a horse survive injury or death if there was a fire in its stall?

30 seconds


What type of saddle places the rider well behind the withers and just behind the 'center' of the horse?

Saddleseat saddle, cut back saddle, or flat saddle


What is the piece of canvas used to throw over a pack saddle load to cover it and protect it?



What is a cavesson and what is its purpose?

It's the noseband on an English bridle, helps keep bridle in place and keeps horse's mouth closed


What is the main difference between the trotter's harness and the pacer's harness?

Pacer's harness has hobbles


Which type of fencing is considered to be the best and safest wire for horse fencing?

5 diamond V mesh wire


What is the main function of a headstall?

To hold the bit evenly and comfortably in the horse's mouth


What is the recommended width of a horse stall door?

Minimum of four feet wide


A good feed room should keep out what 3 pests?

Birds, insects, rodents


Which important factor is just as important in a horse trailer as when building a barn?

Proper ventilation


What is the range of sizes of horse shoe nails?

2 1/2 to 12


What do the all purpose saddle, close contact saddle, and a dressage saddle all have in common?

They are all forward seat saddles


Name the part of the horse shoe nail that is bent over adjacent to the hoof wall and set with the driving hammer.



What is the main cause of horse barn fires?

Human carelessness in use of smoking materials


Why does caution need to be exercised when using shavings, specifically black walnut?

Black walnut shavings cause horses to develop laminitis or founder


Name the 2 traditional types of pack saddles.

Crossbuck (sawbuck) and Decker


What is the main purpose of a noseband?

To keep the horse's mouth shut


How many times a year does the frog naturally shed itself?

Two, every 6 months


To what part of the western saddle does the cinch attach?

The latigo strap


What 2 types of horses commonly use straight or tie stalls?

Draft or carriage horses (accept Hack or rental horses)


What is a device that utilizes rollers behind a cutter bar to crush hay to permit more rapid drying when baling hay?

Hay conditioner


What type of horse shoe is most commonly used?

Keg shoes


What are pre-sized horse shoes that are often fitted cold?

Keg shoes


Name the pack saddle that is center-fired rigged, single cinched saddle with a half breed.



How much taller than the head of a horse should a trailer be?

10 inches


In reference to an English saddle, what is the gullet?

Channel that runs down the center of the under side of the saddle between the bars of the tree


What are 2 considerations when installing a paddock gate?

Location- not in a corner, not in a low or wet area
Size- for horses and machinery
Durability/Material- safe for horses


In reference to tack, what are fittings?

Stirrup leathers, stirrup irons, and girth


What are the 2 most important factors in the selection of a horse trailer?

Comfort and safety


What is the recommended height for a perimeter horse fence?

60 inches (5 feet)


Name the mechanical device that leads horses in a circle to cool them out or to exercise them.

Hot walker


On a packing trip, what is a pannier used for?

To hold gear, food, and equipment


What type of reins are generally used by barrel racers and gymkhana riders?

Roping reins


When building a stall, what should the spacing between the bars be if used on the top of the stall?

3 1/2-4 inches


What is the purpose of screening or dragging your pastures to spread out manure piles?

To reduce parasites


What is the fullering on a horse shoe?

Groove where nail holes are found


What is a general term for a substance that replaces the vital oils in a saddle that are removed by use and cleaning?

Leather conditioner


What is the purpose of toe and heel clips on shoes?

To hold the shoe in place and keep it on


What farrier tool is used to remove excess hoof wall?

Cutting nippers


How long does a horse in a stall with straw bedding have to be rescued if the stall catches on fire?

30 seconds


What is not generally included in the price of a new English saddle?

Stirrup leathers, stirrup irons, girth


Name the horseshoer's tool that is used to widen the nail holes in the horseshoe.



What does a farrier put on horse shoes to help hold the shoe more securely to the horse's hoof?



Name 2 items used to protect the horse while it is being trailered.

Leg wraps, head bumper, hobbles, tail wrap


What piece of a blacksmith's equipment is known as his workbench?



Why would the top of a wooden fence post be cut at an angle?

To allow water to run off rather than stand on top and rot the post


Of the extra light keg shoes, what is the difference between a cold and hot shoe?

Cold shoes are finished (holes are punched and heels are cut)
Hot shoes are unfinished (need holes punched and heels cut or add special structures)


What is the purpose of an anti-sweat sheet?

Helps wick moisture away from the horse's body after a heavy workout. Speeds up the cooling process through evaporation.


What is the minimum height for a horse stall ceiling?

Minimum of 8 feet


When should legumes be reintroduced to a grass and legume pasture?

When legumes contribute less than 30% of total pasture forage


What is the recommended time frame for soil testing pastures?

Soil test every 3-4 years


Why is borium used on horse shoes?

Increases life of shoe, provides better grip on ice, pavement, or dry grass


What is the function of the brow band?

Designed to keep the crown piece from sliding down the horse's neck


Name 2 materials that can be applied to wood to prevent horses from chewing it.

Commercial anti-chewing products, sheet metal, steel angle iron, liquid asphalt


What is the recommended minimum size of a maternity stall for horses?

12' x 12', 12' x 16', or 14' x 14'


What is the recommended height for a pasture division fence?

4 1/2 to 5 feet high


Which is the best and safest wire for horse fencing because its close weave prevents even foals from catching a foot in it?

5 diamond V-mesh wire


What is a wide, hinged, wooden or metal collar used as a restraint to prevent the horse from bending his neck

Neck cradle


What are 2 functions of the heartbar shoe?

Prevents further rotation of the coffin bone, re-establishes normal laminae relationship, supports the back of the hoof


Name the piece of safety equipment used on horse trailers to prevent the horse from backing out if the door opens.

Butt bar or butt chain


To provide a safe interior in a horse trailer, what should be on the side walls, partitions & front of the mangers to prevent injuries?



What is the name for the flexible quirt that is attached to California-style reins?



What is the first step in establishing a new pasture?

Lime & fertilize according to soil test results


What is the purpose of the panniers?

To carry gear, food or equipment on a pack horse


Name the farrier's tool used to cut hot metals.



What is an attachment to the bridle or hood, designed to restrict vision of the horse from the side & rear & to focus the vision forward?

Blinkers (blinders)


What determines the size of a shoe to be used on a horse?

Size of hoof, position of nail holes, length of heels of shoes


What is the purpose of a headstall?

To hold the bit in the horse's mouth


Name 3 types of horseshoe nails

City, regular & frost head


What is the name for a combined noseband & poll strap?



How can you determine how much fertilizer your pasture needs to maintain it in top condition?

Soil test


To prevent muddy conditions, the barn site should have a slope of what percent to provide rapid removal of water without erosion?

2 -6%


California reins are connected to each other with a flexible quirt. Give the name of this piece of equipment.



How do you know if a bit is a snaffle, curb or hackamore?

Snaffle has direct pull from the bit, curb has leverage from the bit, hackamore has no bar for the mouth & reins are attached to the shanks


What is a hay probe?

Instrument used for taking samples of hay for nutrient analysis


With regards to fire, what is a common problem in constriction of a stall?

Only one door for the horse to escape from


What is a planchette?

Wooden step on a sidesaddle used to support the rider's feet


Name the 3 basic types of bits?

Snaffle, curb, hackamore


What benefit should a dressage saddle give a rider?

Balance through the seat & maximum side contact between horse & rider


What is a cavesson & what is its purpose?

Noseband on English bridle, keeps the mouth closed & helps keep bridle in place


Name the type of forage that can be added to grass pastures to make them more nutritious & extend the grazing season.

Legumes ( alfalfa, clover, birds foot trefoil)


Name 4 qualities of good bedding.

Absorbent, free from dust, readily available, inexpensive, provide comfort, easy to handle


What trimming procedure would you use to correct a splay footed horse?

Trim outer half of hoof lower that inside


When doing a soil test, how many & at what depth should the samples be taken?

10 - 15 samples per acre at a depth of 2 - 3 inches


What is the function of the curb strap or chain on a bridle?

Prevent injury to the roof of the mouth when too much pressure is applied on the reins


Name 5 materials that bit mouthpieces can be made of.

Stainless steel, solid nickel/never rust, aluminum, happy mouth, vulcanite, copper, rubber, leather, German silver


Why would you carry vick's vapor rub in your horse trailer?

To apply to a horse's nostrils to prevent him from smelling another strange horse & keep him from fighting in the trailer


What common foot fault would be corrected by lowering the heels & allowing the frog to carry more of the weight?

Contracted heels


What can happen if the last nail hole in the front shoe is placed behind the widest part of the foot?

Expansion of heels will be inhibited


What can be a helpful addition to the Crossbuck saddle to pull the cinch back from the animal's elbow area?

Quarter strap


Name 4 purposes of a saddle blanket.

Protects horse's back, absorb sweat & moisture, protect the saddle , helps saddle fit better


What makes a polo shoe different from a regular cowboy shoe?

Inside web of the polo shoe is raised above or higher than the outside rim


What are 2 reasons why the eating of bedding is undesirable?

Bedding material is low in nutrients, bedding soiled with feces adds to parasite problems , can lead to founder


Why should mangers in tie stalls be slanted as they descend from top to bottom?

So horses won't hit their knees


Give a good reason for periodically removing the rubber mats from the horse trailer.

To allow the trailer floor to completely dry out , to prevent the wood floor from rotting out


Name the 4 steps in establishing a new pasture.

Liming & fertilizing, seedbed preparation, seeding & weed control


Give 2 compelling reasons for not storing hay & straw in the stable area.

To reduce fire hazard, to reduce dust


What is another term for western closed reins?

California reins


In cubic feet, how much waste material does each horse generate per day?

2 cubic feet


Name 4 ways to improve a grass pasture.

Weed control, soil testing, liming, fertilizing, grazing management


Name the non-leverage bit that does not apply pressure to the horse's poll.

Snaffle (bosal is not acceptable)


Name 4 things that improve when legumes are added to an existing grass pasture.

Better seasonal distribution of forages, eliminates need for nitrogen fertilization, high content of protein, calcium & magnesium levels, improved digestibility & tastes better


What common foot fault would be corrected by lowering the heels & allowing the frog to carry more of the weight?

Contracted heels


Name 5 pieces of equipment that you might want to put on your horse to protect it when trailering.

Leg wraps, tail wraps, blanket, head bumper, hock pads, knee pads, hobbles


Name 4 types of snaffle bits

Round, D-ring, full cheek, egg butt, half cheek, twisted


Name 4 types of fencing that should not be used on horse farms.

Barbed wire, stone walls, snow fence, wood zigzag fence, snake fence, light weight wire, corroded wire


Name 6 types of western saddles

Pleasure(trail), endurance, equitation, reining, gymkhana, roping, barrel racing, pack saddle, cutting saddle, racing saddle


Name a cause of death that probably would not be covered by Full Mortality insurance.

Death from negligence or neglect, malicious or willful injuries, horse being used for purpose other than that declared by owner, administration of drug other than those by a vet or directed by vet


What type of shoe is usually used to correct a cow hocked horse?

Square-toe shoe with a trailer


Name 3 problems that can be caused by shoes that are left on too long.

Angle of foot can change enough to affect the gaits, long toes retard the breaking over of the hoof, strain on the deep flexor tendon which may lead to bowed tendons, forging, overreaching


Name 4 common kinds of bedding used for horses

Straw, wood shavings, sawdust, cornstalks, ground corn cobs, recycled newspaper


What conformation defect would you be attempting to correct by trimming the inner half of the horse's hoof short & leaving the outer half relativity longer?

Pigeon toed


Name 4 basic types of English girths.

String, elastic end contour leather, threefold leather, balding leather, web, humane


Proper ventilation is a major concern in a stable, what is the minimum number of air changes per hour needed to keep good air quality?

At least 4 (preferably 8) per hour


Describe 3 things found on a Weymouth bridle that are not on a western bridle.

Cavesson, Weymouth curb bit, bradoon snaffle bit, 2 sets of reins


Describe the Y-Tex Corporation system of alpha characters for freeze branding horses.

Alpha characters used to identify the breed, 2 stacked angles represent the year of birth, 6 side by side underlined angles designated identification or serial numbers of the horse


Name the horseshoe that has an approximately one-quarter inch extension at the outside of the heel, used to correct a cow hocked condition.

Horse shoe with a trailer


Describe the proper height & width of a horse trailer.

10 inches higher than horse's head in its resting position & wide enough to provide 3 inches of lateral movement on each side of the horse


What are 2 financial statements that would sum up your past & present performance as a horse business?

Financial Position (balance sheet) & income Statement (Profit & loss Statement)


Describe 2 of the things you would want to consider before purchasing an endurance saddle.

Light weight saddle, comfortable fit for horse, comfortable fit for rider


Give 3 reasons for shoeing a horse.

Reduce excessive wear, alleviate stress from injured hoof, aids in correcting action defect, increase traction on specific terrain, prevent hoof from breaking, increase circulation, correct mild conformation faults


What are panniers & name 4 types of panniers

Devices attached to a pack saddle used to store gear, food & equipment. Types are: wooden box (grub pannier), rawhide pannier, heavy canvas pannier, metal pannier


Name 3 of the most common types of English saddles.

Saddle seat saddle (flat saddle or Lane Fox), Hunt seat (forward seat), all purpose saddle, close contact saddle


What can happen if the last nail hole in the front shoe is placed behind the widest part of the foot?

Expansion of the heels will be inhibited


What is the minimum time period for vaccinating your horse against diseases that may be transmitted at a horse show or trail ride prior to traveling with your horse?

At least 2 weeks before traveling


Pregnant mares should be removed from pastures that contain fescue during what part of their pregnancy?

Remove 60 - 90 days before foaling date


Which saddle would have a balance strap, leaping horn & can be classified as either English or western style?



How does mowing & harrowing a pasture help control parasites?

Breaks up the manure deposits & exposes larvae to climatic conditions which destroy them.


What is the western version of a standing martingale?



What is the proper name for the "bump" in the middle of the mouthpiece on a curb bit?



Name the 2 most common cause of barn fires in the summer.

Electrical storm & improperly cured hay


Wooden fence posts are usually set 6 - 8 feet on center, what does this mean?

There are 6 - 8 feet from the center of one post to the enter of the next post


What color are the shaving s from black walnut?

Range in color from purplish-black to coffee-brown


What is the purpose of panniers?

To carry supplies


Why is a horse or mule with little or no withers undesirable as a pack animal?

Because their conformation allows the saddle to turn & rub, create painful sores


What part of the horse's foot is protected by the quarter boot?

Heels of the horse's front feet or the quarter of the front heels


How can you prevent the possibility of electrical shock to horses from a wire fence attached to trees, wooden posts or building during lightning storms?

Ground wire with metal rod into ground next to the wooden post or hook the fence to a metal post at intervals of 150 feet


Define a bradoon.

Small snaffle bit found on a Weymouth bridle


Name the 3 basic parts of the bridle.

Headstall, bit, reins


What is the purpose of a neck strap on a standing martingale?

To keep the main strap close to the body to prevent the horse from catching a foot in the strap


Name 3 factors that can interfere with normal frog pressure.

Leaving hoof wall too long, leaving toe too long, trimming too much off bars, trimming away too much of the frog


Name 5 forms of doing business as in horse ownership & management.

Sole proprietorship, Partnership, Syndicate, S Corporation, regular corporation


What are 4 recommended ways of improving a grass pasture?

Weed control, soil testing, fertilizing, liming, grazing management


Name 5 precautions against barn fires.

Use UL approved devices, no smoking in barn, fire extinguishers in barn, no portable heaters, protect light fixtures against dust, breakage & moisture, wiring in conduit pipe, weather proof electrical boxes, no storing flammable material in barn


Name 4 things that you might wrap in a manta when packing or trail riding.

Bedroll, bale of hay, sack of grain, tent, clothing, misc. items


What are the 2 basic types of mortality insurance for horses?

All risks mortality (ARM or full mortality) & Specified Perils (Named Peril or Fire, Lightning,& transportation)


Name the 4 categories of general insurance coverage available for horse owners.

Property, Liability, Worker's compensation, & care, Custody & Control


Name 5 practices that will extend the life of a pasture.

Grazing management, clipping pastures, dragging pastures, annual fertilizing, periodic soil testing, reseeding


From what 2 points do you measure to determine the size of an English saddle's seat?

From saddle nail to mid-point of cantle


name 2 factors that determine the severity of a snaffle bit.

Thickness of the mouthpiece (thin is more severe than thick) also twisting of mouthpiece


Name 4 factors affecting the capacity or stocking rate of pastures.

Type of horses being grazed, soil type, soil fertility, drainage conditions, amount of rainfall, time of year, and species of forage


Name 7 parts of a western bridle.

Crown piece, cheek pieces, bit, reins, throatlatch, curb strap, browband, ear piece


Give 6 common causes of horse barn fires.

Careless smoking, lightning, ignited fires, grass fires, electrical, engine exhaust, arson, defective heating equipment, exposure fires (wind blown/sparks), spontaneous combustion (wet hay)


Give 4 compelling reasons for using a saddle blanket or pad.

Protect horse's back, absorb sweat (moisture), protect saddle, help saddle fit better


Name 2 of the basic types of english reins and describe the ones you choose.

Plain reins- plain leather straps, Laced-thin leather lacing either through or around strap for better grip, Web-horizontal loops of leather or rubber coating for wet weather, rubber-covering with pebbled surface over hand grips


Name 6 items that you should have in a first aid kit.

Non-stick bandages, sheets of cotton bandage, leg quilts & wraps, twitch, elastic tape, eye stain and wash, elastic bandage, scissors, antiseptic soap, phenyulbutazone


name 5 materials used for stall floors.

Clay, sand and clay mix, lime stone dust, asphalt, rubber mats, concrete, wood, rubber paving bricks, fiber reinforced polyethylene interlocking blocks


Name five desirable attributes of good quality stall bedding.

Affordable, absorbent, dust free, readily available, easily disposed of, unpalatable


Name four types of hitches used to secure a load on a packsaddle.

Single diamond, double diamond, half diamond, triple diamond, squaw, Arizona


Name five natural environmental factors to consider when selecting a location for a horse farm.

Topography, drainage, prevailing winds, solar radiation, precipitation, vegetation, soil characteristics


Name five features that you would look for when choosing stall bedding for your horse.

Absorbency, dustiness, availability, cost, ease of disposal, ease of handling, unpalatable