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Year 2 Semester 2 > SPOT/OSPE Revision > Flashcards

Flashcards in SPOT/OSPE Revision Deck (225)
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121

What is the function of the frog in the hoof?

Anti-concussive

122

What is the function of the walls of the hoof?

Weight-bearing

123

What should the angle of the toe to the ground be (in the hoof)?

50 degrees

124

What is the white line of the hoof formed from?

Horny laminae and also horn produced by the terminal papillae at the distal end of the dermal laminae

125

What is contained within the hoof?

Navicular bone
Navicular bursa
Distal phalanx
Middle phalanx (distal end)
DDFT
Digital cushion

126

How is the hoof wall formed?

Dermal papillae produce epidermal tubes of keratin, which extend distally towards the ground. Gaps in between are filled by intertubular horn

127

In birds, what is the function of the Bursa of Fabricius?
Where is it located?

B cell development
Located at dorsal wall at end of cloaca

128

What joins the ovary to the oviduct?

Proper ligament of ovary

129

Where are the ovarian artery and vein contained?

Mesovarium (portion of broad ligament that suspends the ovaries)

130

Where does bulk reabsorption of H2O and Na+ occur?

Proximal convoluted tubule

131

Dilation of this helps to increase the glomerular filtration rate

Afferent arteriole

132

What kind of diuretic can also be used to treat glaucoma?

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors eg Acetozolamide

133

What is the difference between volvulus and torsion?

Volvulus= twist around mesenteric root
Torsion= rotation around long axis

134

Where, along the horse colon, is the diaphragmatic flexure located?
What about the pelvic flexure?

Diaphragmatic flexure: as left dorsal colon becomes right dorsal colon
Pelvic flexure: as left ventral colon becomes left dorsal colon

135

The recurrent laryngeal nerve supplies what?

Intrinsic muscles of larynx (except Cricothyroid muscles)

136

What is the function of angiotensin?

Causes vasoconstriction and a subsequent increase in blood pressure.
Also stimulates release of aldosterone

137

The middle ear is a cavity located within which bone?

Temporal

138

What is the gutteral pouch?
It is split into medial and lateral compartments by which bone?

An air-filled ventral diverticulum of the auditory tube
Only found in horses
Split into medial and lateral compartments by stylohyoid bone

139

What is the lateral surgical approach for gaining access to the gutteral pouch?

Viborg’s Triangle:
Caudal border formed by tendon of insertion of sternocephalicus
Ventral border formed by linguofacial vein
Cranial border formed by the caudal mandible

140

When does the gutteral pouch of the horse drain?

When it swallows
When its head is down

141

What are the 5 signs of inflammation?

Redness, increased heat, swelling, pain, loss of function

142

What prevents backward movement of the jaw in dogs?

Retroarticular process

143

What joins the ovary to the wall of the pelvis?

Suspensory ligament

144

How can you distinguish the small intestine from the large intestine?

No mesentery in large intestine (except transverse and sigmoid colon)

145

How does the caudal maxillary sinus communicate with the rostral maxillary sinus?

Via the naso-maxillary opening

146

Describe blood supply to the liver

Hepatic artery (branch of caeliac) delivers oxygenated blood
Hepatic portal vein delivers nutrient-rich blood from digestive tract

147

Describe liver innervation

Sympathetic supply from peri-arterial plexuses
Parasympathetic supply from ventral vagal trunk

148

What does the nephrosplenic ligament attach?

Kidney and spleen

149

What is reabsorbed and secreted in the DCT and collecting duct?

Reabsorbed: Na+, Cl-
Secreted: K+
(principal cells)

Intercalated cells: H+ secretion

150

Where does the azygous vein terminate?

At the junction between the cranial vena cava and right atrium