Flashcards in SPOT/OSPE Revision Deck (225)
What is the function of the frog in the hoof?
What is the function of the walls of the hoof?
What should the angle of the toe to the ground be (in the hoof)?
What is the white line of the hoof formed from?
Horny laminae and also horn produced by the terminal papillae at the distal end of the dermal laminae
What is contained within the hoof?
Middle phalanx (distal end)
How is the hoof wall formed?
Dermal papillae produce epidermal tubes of keratin, which extend distally towards the ground. Gaps in between are filled by intertubular horn
In birds, what is the function of the Bursa of Fabricius?
Where is it located?
B cell development
Located at dorsal wall at end of cloaca
What joins the ovary to the oviduct?
Proper ligament of ovary
Where are the ovarian artery and vein contained?
Mesovarium (portion of broad ligament that suspends the ovaries)
Where does bulk reabsorption of H2O and Na+ occur?
Proximal convoluted tubule
Dilation of this helps to increase the glomerular filtration rate
What kind of diuretic can also be used to treat glaucoma?
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors eg Acetozolamide
What is the difference between volvulus and torsion?
Volvulus= twist around mesenteric root
Torsion= rotation around long axis
Where, along the horse colon, is the diaphragmatic flexure located?
What about the pelvic flexure?
Diaphragmatic flexure: as left dorsal colon becomes right dorsal colon
Pelvic flexure: as left ventral colon becomes left dorsal colon
The recurrent laryngeal nerve supplies what?
Intrinsic muscles of larynx (except Cricothyroid muscles)
What is the function of angiotensin?
Causes vasoconstriction and a subsequent increase in blood pressure.
Also stimulates release of aldosterone
The middle ear is a cavity located within which bone?
What is the gutteral pouch?
It is split into medial and lateral compartments by which bone?
An air-filled ventral diverticulum of the auditory tube
Only found in horses
Split into medial and lateral compartments by stylohyoid bone
What is the lateral surgical approach for gaining access to the gutteral pouch?
Caudal border formed by tendon of insertion of sternocephalicus
Ventral border formed by linguofacial vein
Cranial border formed by the caudal mandible
When does the gutteral pouch of the horse drain?
When it swallows
When its head is down
What are the 5 signs of inflammation?
Redness, increased heat, swelling, pain, loss of function
What prevents backward movement of the jaw in dogs?
What joins the ovary to the wall of the pelvis?
How can you distinguish the small intestine from the large intestine?
No mesentery in large intestine (except transverse and sigmoid colon)
How does the caudal maxillary sinus communicate with the rostral maxillary sinus?
Via the naso-maxillary opening
Describe blood supply to the liver
Hepatic artery (branch of caeliac) delivers oxygenated blood
Hepatic portal vein delivers nutrient-rich blood from digestive tract
Describe liver innervation
Sympathetic supply from peri-arterial plexuses
Parasympathetic supply from ventral vagal trunk
What does the nephrosplenic ligament attach?
Kidney and spleen
What is reabsorbed and secreted in the DCT and collecting duct?
Reabsorbed: Na+, Cl-
Intercalated cells: H+ secretion