Flashcards in SPOT/OSPE Revision Deck (225)
Decreased serotonin leads to increased what?
What is meant by right shift?
For a given PO2, the Hb saturation is lower, hence unloading of O2 is more efficient. Lower affinity for O2
What is the difference between ionotropic and metabotropic receptors?
Ionotropic: fast, receptor is present on ion channel, ligand-gated eg GABA
Metabotropic: slower, receptor is separate from ion channel, sends second messenger to different receptor on ion channel eg G-protein coupled
Which 3 muscles flex the stifle?
What are they innervated by?
Where do they originate?
In= sciatic nerve
O= tuber ischium
Which muscles extend the stifle?
What are they innervated by?
Quadriceps (all heads)
In= femoral nerve
What is the function of the radial nerve?
Extends elbow, flexes shoulder, extends carpus and digits
What would happen in the cases of proximal and distal radial nerve damage?
Proximal: can't extend elbow or weight-bear
Distal: can't extend carpus (would drag paw along ground)
How is the olfactory epithelium of the caudal nasal cavity stimulated during sniffing?
Quiet breathing: air passes through and below the heat exchanger and is only slightly in contact with olfactory epithelium
During sniffing: air passes above the heat exchanger aswell, reaching all of the olfactory epithelium. Also leads to turbulent airflow, increasing contact between air and olfactory epithelium
What is the nasal septum primarily made of?
What happens to air once it is inspired?
Warmed to body temperature by blood vessels found in the connective tissue layer of the mucous membrane
Mucous secreted by goblet cells moistens the air and traps dust particles
Cilia move the mucous and trapped particles towards the pharynx to be swallowed
What does the olfactory epithelium consist of?
Olfactory receptor cells (bipolar neurones), support cells (pseudostratified columnar with microvilli) and basal cells (stem cells)
Receptor cells have cilia which are very long and project into the nasal cavity to interact with odour molecules
The axons of which cells form CN1 (olfactory nerve)?
Receptor cells of olfactory epithelium. Axons pass through the cribriform plate to synapse on neurones within the olfactory bulbs
What are the 2 surfaces of the soft palate?
1) Respiratory surface, facing nasal pharynx. Columnar ciliated, pseudostratified epithelium with goblet cells
2) Oral surface, facing oral pharynx. Stratified squamous epithelium with rete pegs for anchorage
What are the 4 attachments of the ovaries?
Ovarian lig: attaches ovary to lateral body wall at caudal pole of kidney. Contains ovarian artery and vein so must be ligated in a spay
Mesosalpinx: attaches ovary to uterine horn (part of broad lig)
Suspensory lig: attaches ovary to lateral body wall at caudal pole of kidney. Must be broken in spay to expose the ovary
Proper lig of ovary: attaches ovary to cranial end of uterine horn
How does the uterus attach to the lateral body wall?
Broad ligament (mesometrium)
The mesentery of the jejunum contains many what?
Lymph nodes, situates near the body wall
Associated with the blood vessels that drain the gut
What shape is the colon?
Where are the adrenal glands?
They lie craniomedially to their respective kidney
Taste buds contain which kind of glands?
Why do horses have very large transverse processes?
To support the large GI tract
Where is the zygomatic salivary gland located?
Base of the orbit, medial to zygomatic arch
What lies within the palatine fissure?
What is the chief function of the dorsal, middle and ventral meatus
Dorsal: olfaction (leads to caudal dorsal nasal cavity)
Middle: communicates with maxillary sinus (all sinuses drain through here)
Ventral: main route of inspired air to lungs
What is a sinus?
An air-filled diverticulum of the nasal cavity
What part of the brain needs destroying to cause rapid death?
Medulla oblongata (cardiovascular and respiratory centre of brain)
Which teeth would the rostral maxillary sinus give access to in the horse?
Cheek teeth 4 and 5
Name 2 features of the maxillary sinus that make it prone to infection?
Frontal sinus drains into it
Close association with the upper cheek teeth, so a tooth root infection could break through the alveolar bone into the maxillary sinus
Which nerve innervates the lining of the frontal sinus?
Ophthalmic branch of Trigeminal
What structure passes through the infraorbital canal? (bony tube within the maxilla)
Where does it exit?
Infraorbital nerve (branch of maxillary trigeminal)