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Year 2 Semester 2 > SPOT/OSPE Revision > Flashcards

Flashcards in SPOT/OSPE Revision Deck (225)
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Where do dorsal structures of the head drain?

Parotid lymph node


The initial divisions of the airways branch on what kind of system?
What about the divisions of the peripheral airways?

Monopodial-parent bronchus gives off a much smaller daughter bronchus while it only diminishes a little in diameter. Leads to only a small increase in total cross-sectional area. Continues for the first 6 divisions.
Peripheral-Branching gives off 2 equal daughter bronchi. Causes the total cross-sectional area to double at each division, meaning the overall area increases vastly


What is the purpose of the structural conformation of the trachea (incomplete rings)?

Prevents collapse due to traction forces, whilst allowing it to adjust in length and diameter as the neck moves and the diaphragm contracts


Describe the epithelium in the trachea and primary, secondary and tertiary bronchi

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar with goblet cells


Describe the epithelium in the large bronchioles

Simple ciliated columnar with goblet cells


Describe the epithelium in the small bronchioles

Simple ciliated cuboidal, no goblet cells


Describe the epithelium in the terminal bronchioles

Non-ciliated simple cuboidal, no goblet cells. Also have macrophages and clara cells


Pharyngeal muscles are all innervated by what?

Pharyngeal branches of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves


What is the pharynx?

A passage located between the oral cavity and oesophagus and is divided into oral, nasal and laryngeal parts


Name the muscles of the larynx
State their functions and innervations

Cricothyroid (tenses the vocal fold) (cranial laryngeal nerve)
Cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (opens the glottis) (caudal laryngeal nerve)
Cricoarytenoideus lateralis (closes the glottis) (caudal laryngeal nerve)
Thyroarytenoideus (constricts the glottis) (caudal laryngeal nerve)


Which is the only laryngeal muscle to open the glottis?
What is it innervated by?

Cricoarytenoideus dorsalis
Caudal laryngeal nerve (from recurrent laryngeal)


What kinds of papillae are found on the tongue?

Vallate (4 to 6, arranged in a v, circular, taste buds)
Fungiform (taste buds, involved in heat loss via panting)
Conical (caudal 1/3 tongue, no taste buds)
Foliate (found on the caudal lateral margins, appear as a row of parallel grooves, taste buds)
Filiform (prominent in cat, no taste buds)


How do ACE inhibitors work?

They lower blood pressure by increasing bradykinin (which causes vasodilation)


What are the 2 branches off the caudal mesenteric artery and what do they supply?

Cranial rectal (cranial rectum)
Left colic artery (left colic flexure and descending colon)


What is the trigone of the bladder?

A smooth triangular region of the internal bladder formed by the 2 ureteral orifices, and the internal urethral orifice