What is the toxin and mechanism of EIEC? This is similar to which other microbe?
Microbe invades INTESTINAL mucosa and causes NECROSIS and INFLAMMATION
Similar to SHIGELLA
What is the presentation of EIEC?
What is the toxin and mechanism of ETEC?
Produces HEAT-LABILE and HEAT-STABLE ENTERTOXINS
No inflammation or invastion
What is the presentation of ETEC?
Traveler's diarrhea (watery)
What is the toxin and mechanism of EPEC?
NO TOXIN produced
Adheres to apical surface, FLATTENS VILLI--> prevents absorption
What is the presentation of EPEC?
Diarrhea, usually in children (P for pediatrics)
What is the most common serotype of EHEC?
What toxin does EHEC produce? What does this toxin cause? What is the triad of this syndrome
EHEC produces the SLT (Shiga-like toxin)
Causes Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome (HUS)
HUS: Anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure
What is the pathogenesis of hemolysis, decreased renal blood flow, and thrombocytopenia caused by EHEC?
1. Microthrombi form on endothelium damaged by SLT. This causes mechanical hemolysis (schistocytes form) and decreased renal blood flow
2. The microthrombi also consume platelets--> thrombocytopenia
Where does Klebsiella normally reside? What is it known for causing in alcoholics and diabetics?
Causes atypical lobar pneumonia when aspirated
Klebsiella has abundant polysaccharide capsules...what does this cause? What does Klebsiella sputum look like?
Very MUCOID colonies
Red "currant jelly" sputum
Klebsiella is also known to cause what (3) besides pneumonia?
1. Abscess in lungs
2. Abscess in liver
3. Nosocomial UTIs
What are the 4 A's of Klebsiella (one is a stretch)
Abscess in lungs and liver
di-A-betics (told you it was a stretch)
Spread throughout the body?
**Hydrogen sulfide production?
**Antibiotic effects on disease?
Invades where in the body?
MANY animal reservoirs
**PRODUCES hydrogen sulfide
**Antibiotics PROLONG fecal excretion of organism
Invades INTESTINAL mucosa and causes a MONOCYTIC response
CAN cause bloody diarrhea (not often)
**DOES NOT ferment LACTOSE
Spread throughout the body
**Hydrogen sulfide production
**Antibiotic effects on disease Invades where in the body?
NO goddamn flagella
CELL TO CELL transmission;
no hematogenous spread
Only reservoir are HUMANS and PRIMATES
**DOES NOT produce hydrogen sulfide
**Antibiotics SHORTEN fecal excretion of organism
Invades INTESTINAL mucosa and causes a PMN response
OFTEN causes bloody diarrhea
**DOES NOT ferment lactose
E. Coli algorithm findings: gram shape lactose
E. Coli is a gram negative rod FAST fermenter of lactose
Pseudomonas algorithm findings gram shape lactose oxidase
Gram Negative Rod Lactose negative Oxidase positive
Shigella algorithm findings
Gram negative rod Negative lactose Negative oxidase H2S -
Salmonella algorithm findings
Gram negative rod
Salmonella typhi causes what? Found only in which animal?
Salmonella typhi causes Typhoid Fever Only found in humans
Salmonella typhi is characterized by what (4)? symptoms How to become a carrier?
Rose spots on abdomen
Can remain in gallbladder causing a carrier state