Structure and Function of the Skin Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Structure and Function of the Skin Deck (70)
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1

Which part of the skin is comprised of stratified squamous epithelium?

Epidermis

2

Merkel cells reside in which layer of the epidermis?

Basal cell layer

3

Where do langerhans cells in the skin originate?

Bone marrow

4

Basic skin atomy develops after how many weeks of gestation?

16 weeks

5

Which parts of the skin have developed by 4 weeks of gestation?

  1. Periderm
  2. Basal layer
  3. Dermis

6

After how many weeks of gestation is the skin considered fully formed?

26 weeks

7

Which structures within the skin are hairs always associated with?

  1. Arrector pili muscles
  2. Hair bulbs
  3. Sebaceous sweat glands

8

What causes albinism?

Absence of genes which allow melanin to be formed

9

Which hormone is required for melanosomes to be produced to allow for melanin production?

Melanocyte stimulating hormone

(derived from ACTH from the pituitary)

10

What are Blaschko's lines?

Lines which show developmental growth patterns of skin

(related to different cell groups which grow, divide and migrate over time - the lines are the separations between such populations)

11

The dermis is comprised mostly of what?

Connective tissue

12

In which cell can mechanoreceptors be found?

Merkel cells

13

What causes vitiligo?

Autoimmune condition causing a relative lack of melanocytes

14

What are the layers of the epidermis from superficial to deep?

  1. Keratin layer (stratum corneum)
  2. Clear layer (Stratum lucidum)*
  3. Granular layer (Stratum granulosum)
  4. Prickle layer (Stratum spinosum)
  5. Basal layer (Stratum basale)

*Not considered a major layer

15

Why is it important the cells in the basal layer are protected most by melanin?

Stem cells reside here

DNA must be capped by melanin as this cannot be replaced

16

Which cell type of most prominent in the epidermis?

Keratinocytes (95%)

17

Which two major conditions involves increased epidermal turnover?

  1. Psoriasis
  2. Skin cancer

18

What induces merkel cell cancer?

Infection from viruses

(Rare and high mortality cancer)

19

In which cell may Birbeck granules be found?

Langerhans cells

(they look like tennis rackets)

20

What is the name given to melanin that is black/brown in colour?

Eumelanin

21

What is the name given to melanin that is red/yellow in colour?

Pheomelanin

22

What is the correct order for the stages of hair growth?

  1. Anagen (Growing)
  2. Catagen (Involuting)
  3. Telogen (resting

23

Where do melanocytes originate?

Neural crest

(in ectoderm during embryogenesis)

24

What may increase within the skin in reponse to mechanical pressures?

Keratin

(for increased strength)

25

The epidermis arises from whcih embryological tissue?

Ectoderm

26

Which cells within the skin are the outermost cells able to detect microbes?

Langerhans cells

27

What is the treatment for vitiligo?

Phototherapy

(filtered phototherapy can control the autoimmune response)

 

28

Which layer of the epidermis contains filaggrin and involucrin?

Granular layer

(provides such substances to maintain water barrier of skin)

29

Which type of granules will release filaggrin and involucrin?

Lamellar

(within the granular layer)

30

What is the term given to the remnant of granular cells which now have no nucleus?

Corneocytes

(cells of the granular layer are flattened, lose thier nucleus, release contents of lamellar granules (filaggrin and involucrin) and create 2-3 layers to become the keratin layer)