Surgical Techniques - Instrument Sterilization and Environmental and Equipment Disinfection 3-A Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Surgical Techniques - Instrument Sterilization and Environmental and Equipment Disinfection 3-A Deck (91):
1

Agent capable of killing spore-forming organisms in the free spore state

sporicidal

2

Protection against wound infection pre-, inter-, and post-operatively through aseptic technique

surgical asepsis

3

a small glass receptacle for holding liquids or powders

flask

4

actual or suspected relative number of microorganisms found in an area or on an item

bioburden

5

a highly resistant, protective covering or casing formed by a bacterium

spore

6

chemical agent that destroys microorganisms

disinfectant

7

surface or medium on which an organism grows or is attached

substrate

8

open inner space of a tube, which can be in an endoscope, a catheter, or a needle; a hollow cavity in an organ or a blood vessel; can also be a unit of invisible, translit light that is generally described as a measure of brightness

lumen

9

hospital-acquired infection

nonsocomial

10

substance that kills all forms of living matter including spore-bearing ones

sterilant

11

non-living or lifeless

inanimate

12

transmission of microorganisms from patient to patient and from inanimate objects to patients and vice versa

cross contamination

13

agent that destroys germs

germicide

14

having the capacity to chemically kill pseudomonas bacteria which commonly causes infections in wounds, burns, and the urinary tract

pseudimonacidal

15

the process for removing contaminants from an object that has been exposed to hazardous materials, such as infectious material and blood, chemicals, or radioactive substances

decontamination

16

a chemical agent that inhibits the growth of microorganisms without necessarily killing them

antiseptic

17

having the capacity to prevent of destroy or inhibit the growth of fungi

fungicidal

18

causative agent that is spread by persons coming into contact with body fluids or droplets that leave by mans of an infected person's portals of exit

pathogen

19

very small mass of liquid carried in a spray from the nose or mouth which falls to surface upon expiration as liquid and which are not readily inhaled

droplet

20

inanimate objects which are freshly contaminated with secretions or excretions from an infected person or carrier

fomites

21

an animal, especially an insect, that transmits pathogens from infected to non-infected individuals

vector

22

having the capacity to or tending to destroy or inactivate viruses

virucidal

23

having the capacity to prevent or destroy the growth or action of bacteria

bactericidal

24

any occurrence that compromises the sterility of the package

event-related sterility

25

sterility is less critical for those items that come in contact with mucous membranes or broken skin. Items are considered clean and require minimal disinfection using a chemical disinfectant, such as glutaraldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and peracetic acid with hydrogen peroxide to reduce microorganisms before use.

semicritical

26

Any items introduced to internal body areas or areas with high risk of infection if contaminated with microorganisms, including bacterial spores. These items must be handles with sterile technique to maintain sterility.

critical

27

Items that come in contact with intact skin but not mucous membranes. Most reusable items may be decontaminated where they are used and do not need to be transported to Central Processing.

noncritical

28

the immediate disinfection process following discharge of infectious material from the body of an infected person or after contamination of articles by an infectious agent

concurrent disinfection

29

used on noncritical items such as floors, walls, and anesthesia equipment

Level 3 low-level disinfectant

30

used to disinfect or sterilize surgical instruments

Level 1 high-level disinfectant

31

examples of disinfectants include glutaraldehyde, peracetic acid, and chloride compounds

Level 1 high-level disinfectant

32

accomplished by surface cleaning or disinfection

Level 3 low-level disinfectant

33

used on semicritical items such as laryngoscopes, bronchoscopes, and respiratory equipment

Level 2 intermediate-level disinfectant

34

examples of disinfectants include phenolic germicidal solution, iodophor solution, sodium hypochlorite, and quaternary ammonium compounds

Level 3 low-level disinfectant

35

the action of a disinfecting agent to make substances, such as fats or lipids, dissolve, especially in water

solubilization

36

the physical action in which fats are mechanically broken up into very small particles which are uniformly suspended in the disinfecting solution

emulsification

37

the action of organic matter attaching itself to the water hardness particles, principally those of calcium and magnesium, and inactivating them so they will not combine with other material, such as the disinfecting agent in the water and precipitate out

chelation

38

the action of breaking down or digesting large organic molecules that then interact with and break down a particular molecule and move on and repeat the process

enzymatic

39

Use protective eye wear and ______ equipment when working with chemical disinfectants to prevent accidental splash to eyes and inhalation of fumes.

respiratory

40

Use covered containers and adequate _____ to reduce exposure to fumes since vapors can be toxic.

ventilation

41

Properly _____ liquids.

dilute

42

Ensure items are clean and free of gross _____ so the disinfectant effectiveness is maximized.

contaminants

43

Dry materials prior to disinfection to prevent disinfectant ______.

dilution

44

Completely _____ items in the disinfectant solution.

immerse

45

Allow adequate time during immersion for disinfectant to _____.

work

46

_____ disinfectant from items prior to use.

Rinse

47

Type and number of microorganisms present, including gross contamination or _____.

bioburden

48

Degree of _____ - This determines the level of disinfectant required and time of exposure.

contamination

49

Amount of proteinaceous material present - High protein-based materials _____ and neutralize some chemical disinfectants.

absorb

50

Presence of _____ matter and other compounds - May neutralize some disinfectants.

organic

51

______ nature of disinfectant - It is important to understand the mode of action in order to select the appropriate disinfectant.

Chemical

52

Concentration and _____ of disinfectant - It is important to choose the proper concentration and _____ of disinfectant that is best suited for the level of disinfection needed.

quantity
quantity

53

Contact time, ______ level, and temperature - Sufficient time and appropriate temperature must be allowed for action of the disinfectant and may depend on the degree of contamination and organic matter load.

pH

54

Widely used high-level disinfecting agent, especially for semicritical instruments, that destroys microbes by denaturation of cellular proteins

2% glutaraldehyde

55

Is a nonglutaraldehyde based high-level disinfecting agent used to destroy microbes by denaturation of cellular proteins

Ortho-Phthaldehyde 0,55% (Cidex OPA)

56

Destroys microbes by coagulating cellular proteins

alcohol - Isolpropyl and ethyl

57

Disrupts the cellular metabolism of the microbes by oxidizing enzymes

chlorine compounds/sodium hypochlorite (bleach)

58

reacts through oxidation with the organic material and microbes in the water to kill them

chlorinated lime

59

penetrate the cell wall of microorganisms quickly, and the lethal effects are believed to result from disruption of protein and nucleic acid structure and synthesis

iodine-based compounds (iodophor)

60

destroy microorganisms through denaturation and coagulation of proteins

phenois and derivatives

61

Keep _____ in and out of the operating room to an absolute minimum.

traffic

62

Immediately apply a _____ spectrum detergent-germicide to areas contaminated with organic debris such as blood.

broad

63

Dispose of sponges in a ____ biohazard bag.

red

64

Do not place soiled sponges on a _____ sterile table.

draped

65

Use glove or _____ or both when counting and collecting soiled sponges.

instruments

66

Place all disposable sharps in a ______-resistant biohazard container as infectious waste.

puncture

67

Clean the exterior surfaces of _____ containers before removal from OR.

specimen

68

Keep all trash and _____ off the floor.

linen

69

begins with the removal of the initial gross contaminants by wiping the instrument as it is used on the sterile field

decontamination

70

initial immersion in a basin of enzymatic detergent, distilled water, or water with a low sudsing detergent helps to loosen gross contaminants from instruments

pre-rinse or soaking

71

the hand washing of instruments in the processing area to remove any residual blood or debris before high-level disinfection or terminal sterilization

manual cleaning

72

uses high frequency sound waves to generate tiny bubbles that clean the serrations, crevices, and lock boxes of instruments that are difficult to clean with other methods

ultrasonic cleaning

73

this process must be completed on any instrument with moving parts; involves completely immersing the instrument in a manufacturer-approved lubricant for 30-45 seconds, then dipping and allowing to drip dry in a draining tray

lubrication

74

involves the inspection, assembling, and packaging of instruments and supplies prior to terminal sterilization of disinfection

preparation, assembly, and packaging

75

critical verification of instruments must be done after cleaning to ensure there is no damage, stiffness of hinged joints, etc.

inspecting and testing

76

distribution of instruments into instrument sets or procedure trays for packaging and placement in sterilizer racks

assembly

77

to be effective, the appropriate instrument container must allow the sterilizing agent to come in contact with all surfaces of the instrumnts

packaging

78

the physical or chemical sterilization process that renders an item free of all living microorganisms, including spores

terminal and final sterilization

79

concerned with event-related sterility and the shelf-life of items

storage

80

concerned with the probability of contamination increasing as supplies are touched and moved around

handling

81

concerned with systems, delivery, patient charging methods, record keeping, and safety practices

distribution

82

The _____ cleaner provides a cleaning process, not a thermal or chemical disinfection or sterilization process.

ultrasonic

83

The washer-sterilizer method cleans items to at least an ______ disinfected level.

intermediate

84

The manual or hand-wash method requires a _____ in its first stage to prevent excessive drying of soil.

soaking time

85

During hand wash, _____ must be brushed internally to remove residue.

endoscopes

86

_____ is the final step before milking the instruments.

Rinsing

87

Milking the instruments is designed for instruments that require _____.

lubrication

88

After cleaning, completely _____ the instruments.

dry

89

When using a washer-decontaminator, instruments are placed in a mesh or perforated bottom ______

basket

90

When using the manual method, completely immerse instruments in a deep basin with _____ cleaning detergent in warm water.

non-corrosive

91

It is important to keep dissimilar metals separate to prevent _____ through electrolysis.

etching