Flashcards in Surgical Techniques - Instrument Sterilization and Environmental and Equipment Disinfection 3-A Deck (91):
Agent capable of killing spore-forming organisms in the free spore state
Protection against wound infection pre-, inter-, and post-operatively through aseptic technique
a small glass receptacle for holding liquids or powders
actual or suspected relative number of microorganisms found in an area or on an item
a highly resistant, protective covering or casing formed by a bacterium
chemical agent that destroys microorganisms
surface or medium on which an organism grows or is attached
open inner space of a tube, which can be in an endoscope, a catheter, or a needle; a hollow cavity in an organ or a blood vessel; can also be a unit of invisible, translit light that is generally described as a measure of brightness
substance that kills all forms of living matter including spore-bearing ones
non-living or lifeless
transmission of microorganisms from patient to patient and from inanimate objects to patients and vice versa
agent that destroys germs
having the capacity to chemically kill pseudomonas bacteria which commonly causes infections in wounds, burns, and the urinary tract
the process for removing contaminants from an object that has been exposed to hazardous materials, such as infectious material and blood, chemicals, or radioactive substances
a chemical agent that inhibits the growth of microorganisms without necessarily killing them
having the capacity to prevent of destroy or inhibit the growth of fungi
causative agent that is spread by persons coming into contact with body fluids or droplets that leave by mans of an infected person's portals of exit
very small mass of liquid carried in a spray from the nose or mouth which falls to surface upon expiration as liquid and which are not readily inhaled
inanimate objects which are freshly contaminated with secretions or excretions from an infected person or carrier
an animal, especially an insect, that transmits pathogens from infected to non-infected individuals
having the capacity to or tending to destroy or inactivate viruses
having the capacity to prevent or destroy the growth or action of bacteria
any occurrence that compromises the sterility of the package
sterility is less critical for those items that come in contact with mucous membranes or broken skin. Items are considered clean and require minimal disinfection using a chemical disinfectant, such as glutaraldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and peracetic acid with hydrogen peroxide to reduce microorganisms before use.
Any items introduced to internal body areas or areas with high risk of infection if contaminated with microorganisms, including bacterial spores. These items must be handles with sterile technique to maintain sterility.
Items that come in contact with intact skin but not mucous membranes. Most reusable items may be decontaminated where they are used and do not need to be transported to Central Processing.
the immediate disinfection process following discharge of infectious material from the body of an infected person or after contamination of articles by an infectious agent
used on noncritical items such as floors, walls, and anesthesia equipment
Level 3 low-level disinfectant
used to disinfect or sterilize surgical instruments
Level 1 high-level disinfectant
examples of disinfectants include glutaraldehyde, peracetic acid, and chloride compounds
Level 1 high-level disinfectant
accomplished by surface cleaning or disinfection
Level 3 low-level disinfectant
used on semicritical items such as laryngoscopes, bronchoscopes, and respiratory equipment
Level 2 intermediate-level disinfectant
examples of disinfectants include phenolic germicidal solution, iodophor solution, sodium hypochlorite, and quaternary ammonium compounds
Level 3 low-level disinfectant
the action of a disinfecting agent to make substances, such as fats or lipids, dissolve, especially in water
the physical action in which fats are mechanically broken up into very small particles which are uniformly suspended in the disinfecting solution
the action of organic matter attaching itself to the water hardness particles, principally those of calcium and magnesium, and inactivating them so they will not combine with other material, such as the disinfecting agent in the water and precipitate out
the action of breaking down or digesting large organic molecules that then interact with and break down a particular molecule and move on and repeat the process
Use protective eye wear and ______ equipment when working with chemical disinfectants to prevent accidental splash to eyes and inhalation of fumes.
Use covered containers and adequate _____ to reduce exposure to fumes since vapors can be toxic.
Properly _____ liquids.
Ensure items are clean and free of gross _____ so the disinfectant effectiveness is maximized.
Dry materials prior to disinfection to prevent disinfectant ______.
Completely _____ items in the disinfectant solution.
Allow adequate time during immersion for disinfectant to _____.
_____ disinfectant from items prior to use.
Type and number of microorganisms present, including gross contamination or _____.
Degree of _____ - This determines the level of disinfectant required and time of exposure.
Amount of proteinaceous material present - High protein-based materials _____ and neutralize some chemical disinfectants.
Presence of _____ matter and other compounds - May neutralize some disinfectants.
______ nature of disinfectant - It is important to understand the mode of action in order to select the appropriate disinfectant.
Concentration and _____ of disinfectant - It is important to choose the proper concentration and _____ of disinfectant that is best suited for the level of disinfection needed.
Contact time, ______ level, and temperature - Sufficient time and appropriate temperature must be allowed for action of the disinfectant and may depend on the degree of contamination and organic matter load.
Widely used high-level disinfecting agent, especially for semicritical instruments, that destroys microbes by denaturation of cellular proteins
Is a nonglutaraldehyde based high-level disinfecting agent used to destroy microbes by denaturation of cellular proteins
Ortho-Phthaldehyde 0,55% (Cidex OPA)
Destroys microbes by coagulating cellular proteins
alcohol - Isolpropyl and ethyl
Disrupts the cellular metabolism of the microbes by oxidizing enzymes
chlorine compounds/sodium hypochlorite (bleach)
reacts through oxidation with the organic material and microbes in the water to kill them
penetrate the cell wall of microorganisms quickly, and the lethal effects are believed to result from disruption of protein and nucleic acid structure and synthesis
iodine-based compounds (iodophor)
destroy microorganisms through denaturation and coagulation of proteins
phenois and derivatives
Keep _____ in and out of the operating room to an absolute minimum.
Immediately apply a _____ spectrum detergent-germicide to areas contaminated with organic debris such as blood.
Dispose of sponges in a ____ biohazard bag.
Do not place soiled sponges on a _____ sterile table.
Use glove or _____ or both when counting and collecting soiled sponges.
Place all disposable sharps in a ______-resistant biohazard container as infectious waste.
Clean the exterior surfaces of _____ containers before removal from OR.
Keep all trash and _____ off the floor.
begins with the removal of the initial gross contaminants by wiping the instrument as it is used on the sterile field
initial immersion in a basin of enzymatic detergent, distilled water, or water with a low sudsing detergent helps to loosen gross contaminants from instruments
pre-rinse or soaking
the hand washing of instruments in the processing area to remove any residual blood or debris before high-level disinfection or terminal sterilization
uses high frequency sound waves to generate tiny bubbles that clean the serrations, crevices, and lock boxes of instruments that are difficult to clean with other methods
this process must be completed on any instrument with moving parts; involves completely immersing the instrument in a manufacturer-approved lubricant for 30-45 seconds, then dipping and allowing to drip dry in a draining tray
involves the inspection, assembling, and packaging of instruments and supplies prior to terminal sterilization of disinfection
preparation, assembly, and packaging
critical verification of instruments must be done after cleaning to ensure there is no damage, stiffness of hinged joints, etc.
inspecting and testing
distribution of instruments into instrument sets or procedure trays for packaging and placement in sterilizer racks
to be effective, the appropriate instrument container must allow the sterilizing agent to come in contact with all surfaces of the instrumnts
the physical or chemical sterilization process that renders an item free of all living microorganisms, including spores
terminal and final sterilization
concerned with event-related sterility and the shelf-life of items
concerned with the probability of contamination increasing as supplies are touched and moved around
concerned with systems, delivery, patient charging methods, record keeping, and safety practices
The _____ cleaner provides a cleaning process, not a thermal or chemical disinfection or sterilization process.
The washer-sterilizer method cleans items to at least an ______ disinfected level.
The manual or hand-wash method requires a _____ in its first stage to prevent excessive drying of soil.
During hand wash, _____ must be brushed internally to remove residue.
_____ is the final step before milking the instruments.
Milking the instruments is designed for instruments that require _____.
After cleaning, completely _____ the instruments.
When using a washer-decontaminator, instruments are placed in a mesh or perforated bottom ______
When using the manual method, completely immerse instruments in a deep basin with _____ cleaning detergent in warm water.