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Female Repro Physiology > Teratology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Teratology Deck (22):

What do we mean my minor anomalies?

Don't need surgery and aren't really going to impact their health.

Small years, pigmentation, etc.


If a baby has 1 minor anomaly, or 2, or 3, what are their chances of having a major one (needs surgery)?

1 = 3% chance of having a major malformation

2 = 10% chance

3 = 20% chance


Ruebella is linked to this birth defect

Congenital cataracts

We also see glaucoma, heart defects, deafness, tooth abnormalities.

(Think of an old person, nad teeth, can't hear, can't see, heart's fucked up)


1-2 % of infants exposed to Valproic acid will develop __________

Spina bifida or other neural tube defects


When is the highest risk of inducing a birth defect?

Embryonic period from 3 - 5 weeks gestation, with the highest risk being at 5 weeks. Steady downhill slope after 5 weeks.


Why are the first two weeks of conceptus not considered with teratogenesis?

First two weeks, the conceptus is not that sensitive, but there is still a high rate of lethality instead of teratogenesis.

At Day 13 is when the placental blood flow is beginning and blood starts to exchange between mother and embryo. The risk begins after this for danger.


Cytomegalovirus causes what congenital malformations?

Infection is often fatal. If not, it'll be damn close:

Microcephaly, blindness, mental retardation


Herpes Simplex virus causes what congenital malformations?

Micropthalmia, microcephaly, retinal dysplasia


Hyperthermia can cause what congenital malformations?

Anencephaly, spina bifida, mental retardation, facial defects, cardiac abnormalities, limb defects


X-rays cause what congenital malformations?

Microcephaly, spina bifida, cleft palate, limb defects


Thalinomide causes what congenital malformations?

Limb defects, heart malformations


Amphetamines cause what congenital malformations?

Cleft lip and palate, heart defects


Cocaine cause what congenital malformations?

Growth retardation, microcephaly


Lead cause what congenital malformations?

Growth retardation, neurological disorders


Alcohol cause what congenital malformations?

Fetal alcohol syndrome, heart defects, mental retardation


Retinoic Acid cause what congenital malformations?

Hydro or microcephaly, intellectual disabilities, ear and eye issues, facial abnormalities like cleft lip and palate, and heart defects.

Occurs when taking it during weeks 3 - 5


Why might a pregnant woman have thalidomide in her system?

Prescribed to pregnant women as a sedative and treatment for morning sickness. Even a single dose was enough to cause congenital malformations, and the highest risk was during 3 and 8 weeks.


Why do we use Statins and what is the deal with their use in pregnancy?

Hyperlipidemia treatment.

The original idea was that we needed to limit the cholesterol in a woman's body in order to not overproduce steroid hormones in fetal blood. But there are teratogenic effects, so don't use em if you're preggers.


What are the characteristic features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome?

- Depressed nasal bridge
- Short nose
- Flat midface
- Indistinct philtrum
- Thin upper lip

Leading cause of mental retardation


Androgenic agents cause what congenital malformations?

Masculinization of female genitalia


Synthetic estrogen cause what congenital malformations?

Malformation of the uterus, uterine tubes and vagina.

Can also lead to vaginal cancer and malformed testes


This supplement can help reduce incidence of neural tube defects