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Flashcards in Female Repro System 2 Deck (32):

Let's talk uterus. What are the 3 layers of tissue in this fine fine organ?

From the outside in:
1. Perimetrium: connective tissue
2. Myometrium: highly vascular smooth muscle
3. Endometrium: simple columnar epithelium


What happens to the myometrium during pregnancy?

It undergoes hypertrophy and hyperplasia so it can push baby out during birth


Th endometrium has two layers. Tell me about them.

1. Basal layer: next to the myometrium, highly cellular lamina propria and the basal end of the myometrial glands. This layer stays the same in the menstrual cycle.
2. Functional layer: superficial layer with spongier lamina propria and including most of the length of the myometrial glands. This layer changes during the menstrual cycle.


Describe the blood supply to the endometrium.

Arcutate arteries from the myometrium give off two smaller arteries to the endometrium
1. Straight arteries: supply basal layer
2. Spiral arteries: progesterone sensitive long arteries that supply the functional layer


IN THE UTERUS, we talk about 3 phases of the menstrual cycle. What are they?

1. Menstrual phase
2. Proliferative phase
3. Secretory phase


Whats the significance of the menstrual phase (REAL TOUGH ONE GUYS)

Menstrual phase: you got it, the shedding of the endometrial lining and microvasculature. Occurs when fertilization doesn't happen and the corpus luteum regresses, so there is less progesterone and estrogens. No progesterone causes
1. arterial muscle contractions that disrupt blood supply to the functional layer
2. more prostaglandin production causing vasoconstriction and hypoxia


What is the significance of the proliferative phase (maybe something to do with proliferation but what do I know)

Proliferative phase: ovarian follicles start to grow, and eventually develop theca cells that make and secrete estrogen. Estrogen causes regeneration of the functional layer with its microvasculature and glands.


Annnd finally the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle.

Secretory phase: Corpus luteum secretes progesterone that causes the uterine glands to secrete glycogen (for potential embryo), which dilates the lumen. Endometrium reaches max thickness (5mm). Progesterone also inhibits myometrial contraction that would interfere with embryo implantation.


So now we have fertilization, what's going on with the zygote? As it approaches the uterus to implant, what kind of changes does it undergo?

The zygote undergoes mitotic divisions of cells called blastomeres in a compact ball called the morula. During these divisions, the cells are getting smaller, and the morula stays the same size.


At around 5 day post fertilization, the morula is now called the _____________



Before implantation occurs, the cells of the blastocyst change and split into two layers. What are they?

1. Trophoblasts: peripheral layer
2. Embryoblast: inner cell mass


Implantation! How does this process happen?

Lasts about 3 days. The trophoblasts help drive this process, differentiating into the cytotrophoblasts and the syncytiotrophoblast cells. The embryoblast cells differentiate into the amnion and the yolk sac.


What do cytotrophoblasts do?

They surround the amnion and yolk sac. They are mitotically active cells that eventually produce anti-inflammatory cytokines to protect against uterine reaction to the implanted embryo.


What do syncytiotrophoblasts do?

These are non mitotic cells that are made of multinucleated cytoplasm that invades the stroma of the uterus.


Now that we have implantation, the whole endometrium is now called the _________ and it is split into 3 layers: ____________, _____________ and ______________

1. Decidual cells
2. Decidua basalis: develops chorionic villi that eventually make up the placenta.
3. Decidua capsularis
4. Decidua parietalis


The placenta has a mom part and a baby part. Which is which.

Baby: chorion from the trophoblast
Mom: Decidua basalis


Why do we care about the placenta? What's its job(s)?

1. Exchange of gases, nutrients and water between the mom and baby
2. Endocrine function: produces hCG, relaxin and various growth factors


How do the secretions of the cervix change based on where a female is in her menstrual cycle?

1. At ovulation, the mucus is more watery so that spermies can swim to the egg
2. In the luteal phase (after ovulation) the mucus gets thicker to prevent more sperm from coming.


What kind of cells lines the exo/endocervix?

Exocervix: nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium
Endocercix: simple columnar epithelium

Between endo/exocervix is the transformation zone, where we look for neoplasms due to the presence of metaplasia in that region


What is cervical effacement? (It sounds awful)

During pregnancy the cervix becomes rigid to keep the baby in the mother. But when birth is about to happen, macrophages help the cervix undergo collagen remodeling so that the cervix is softer and dilates more easily. Effacement is the thinning of the cervix.


What kind of cells line the vagina?

Stratified squamous epithelium


What do the stratified squamous epithelial cells of the vagina produce? How does this affect the pH of the vagina?

Glycogen, which is eaten by normal bacterial flora to produce lactic acid, which is why the pH of the vagina is acidic. This helps keep out bad bacteria.


What do the bartholin glands make?

Mucus, during sexual arousal


Describe the structure of the breast

Each mammary gland is made of 15-25 tuboalveolar lobes that secrete milk. Each lobe is separate by connective tissue and fat, and has its own lactiferous duct that emerges separately at the nipple.


Describe how breast structure changes in girls during puberty

Before puberty there are only lactiferous sinuses in the mammary glands, with small ducts emerging from the sinuses. Increased estrogen production during puberty causes adipocyte accumulation and duct system elongation in girls.


In nonpregnant women, what is the structure of the breast?

Each mammary gland LOBE has many LOBULES or terminal duct lobular units (TDLU)


What cells line the lacterifous sinuses?

Stratified cuboidal epithelium


What cells line the lacterious ducts and terminal ducts?

Simple cuboidal epithelium covered by myoepithelial cells


What is the name of the skin covering the nipple what does it contain?

1. Areola
2. Contains sebaceous glands and lots of sensory nerves.

It is continuous with lactiferous sinuses


Describe what happens to the breast tissue during pregnancy?

1. Many hormones (estrogen, progesterone) cause the proliferation of alveoli cells located at the ends of the intralobular ducts.
2. Growth of the alveoli and duct system occurs as the stroma decreases and is infiltrated by lymphocytes and plasma cells.
3. Colostrum (fluid containing proteins and leukocytes) accumulates in the glandular alveoli and ducts, providing passive immunity to the baby through breast milk.


Describe what happens to the breast tissue during lactation? What goes into the breast milk?

Prolactin stimulates lactation from the alveoli. The epithelial cells of the alveoli get bigger and then 3 things happen:
1. Protein is made and put into secretory vesicles which undergo merocrine secretion (exocytosis) (1g)
2. Lipid droplets are made from short chain fatty acids and are added to longer chain fatty acids from the diet. Apocrine secretion occurs, which means the droplet gets enveloped with a portion of the apical cell membrane. (4-5g)
3. Lactose is made in the Golgi and secreted with lactalbumin (7g)


Describe the changes in the breast during post-lactation.

1. Alveoli degenerate
2. Epithelial cells undergo apoptosis, autophagy or sloughing
3. Dead cells eaten by macrophages
4. Duct system and glands return to inactive state