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Flashcards in TEST 1 Deck (139):
1

development of granulation tissue involves the growth of new capillaries

angiogenesis

2

what is the by product of anaerobic metabolism

lactic acid

3

anaerobic metabolism is what

breakdown of glucose without oxygen

4

goal for all body systems

homeostasis

5

Cells revert to a smaller size in response to metabolic or environmental changes

atrophy

6

somethings broken in the body

compensatory mechanism

7

inadequate blood flow to tissue or organs

ischemia

8

physiology and pathology of atrophy

phy: occurs with early development, similar to the thymus
path: decrease in hormonal stimulation, nerves, nutrition, blood flow, aging

9

Increase in cell size resulting in an enlargement of functioning tissue and mass

hypertrophy

10

physiology and pathology of hypertrophy

phy: exercise- angiogenesis
path: compensatory mechanism- ischemia

11

An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ
Cells mitotic division only (epithelial & glandular)

hyperplasia

12

growth, cellular multiplication

-plasia

13

physiology and pathology of hyperplasia

phy: Compensatory: Allows organs to regenerate ex. liver
Hormonal: Replaces lost tissue or supports new growth ex. women gets ready to have a baby every month
path: Keloid
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Skin warts

14

hormonal stimulation, testosterone, and enlarged prostate

benign prostate hyperplasia

15

Replacement of one cell type by another cell type
Result of cell’s genetic reprogramming

metaplasia

16

physiology and pathology of metaplasia

phy: Compensatory: Response to chronic irritation and inflammation
Replacement of cell’s allows tissue survival
path: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

17

Cellular growth within a specific tissue, often as a result of chronic inflammation or precancerous condition.

dysplasia

18

physiology and pathology of dysplasia

phy: Abnormal changes in the size, shape, and organization of mature cells
path: Precursor to cervical cancer

19

“New-growth” usually refers to disorganized, uncoordinated, uncontrolled proliferative cell growth----cancerous

neoplasia

20

Process of eliminating unwanted cells

apoptosis

21

what is apoptosis good for

Important in tissue development, immune defense and cancer prevention

22

cells condense or shrink

apoptosis

23

cells swell and burst

necrosis

24

Enzymes dissolve and liquefy necrotic tissue

liquefaction necrosis

25

ex of liquefaction necrosis

brain

26

Necrotic cells disintegrate…cellular debris remains in area

caseous necrosis ; cottage cheese appearance

27

ex of caseous necrosis

pulmonary TB

28

Lipase enzymes breakdown intracellular triglycerides into free fatty acids

fat necrosis

29

Interruption of blood flow

coagulative necrosis

30

ex of coagulative necrosis

kidneys, heart, adrenal glands

31

Result of impaired blood flow + bacterial invasion

form of necrosis; gangrene

32

what is gas gangrene

clostridium bacteria (clostridium perfringens)

33

A serious infection of the skin, the tissue just beneath the skin (subcutaneous tissue), and the tissue that covers internal organs (fascia).

necrotizing fasciitis

34

tell more about necrotizing fasciitis

early signs are flu like symptoms , redness, pain around infection

35

why is a prompt diagnosis and treatment essential to necrotizing fasciitis

If the infection is not treated promptly, it can lead to multiple organ failure and death. Treatment typically includes intravenous (IV) antibiotics and surgery to remove infected and dead tissue

36

flesh eating disease

necrotizing facisiitis

37

what is the most common cause of necrotizing facisiitis

streptococcus a

38

complex nonspecific response to tis- sue injury intended to minimize the effects of injury or infection, remove the damaged tissue, generate new tissue, and facilitate healing.

inflammation

39

5 leukocytes

neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils/mast cells, monocytes/macrophages, lymphocytes

40

makes up most of the leukocytes

neutrophils

41

first cells to appear at the site of acute inflammation; short life span

neutrophils

42

protein that is highly toxic to large parasitic worms that cannot be phagocytized; present in chronic inflammation

eosinophils

43

most prominent in allergic reactions mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE)

basophils

44

prevalent along mucosal surfaces of the lung, gastrointestinal tract, and dermis of the skin.; dont develop until they leave circulation

mast cells

45

Largest circulating leukocytes

monocytes

46

capable of phagocytosis and are active in bacterial killing

macrophages

47

develop from B lymphocytes that have become activated after encountering an antigen and receiving T cell help

plasma cells

48

Macrophages display antigen to T cells, express membrane molecules and produce cytokines that stimulate T-cell responses.

lymphocytes

49

cardinal signs of acute inflammatory response

redness, swelling, heat, pain, loss of funx

50

fever

36.0°C to 37.5°C (97.0°F to 99.5°F)

51

inflammation and the effects on elderly

The elderly tend to have a lower baseline temperature, so that serious infections may go unrecognized because of the perceived lack of a significant fever

52

the process of increasing cell numbers by mitotic division.

cell proliferation

53

process whereby a cell becomes more specialized in terms of structure and function

cell differentiation

54

The periodic biochemical and structural events occurring during cell proliferation are called

cell cycle

55

3 phases of wound healing

inflammatory
proliferating
remodeling

56

cell cycle process in which nongerm cells are replicated. It provides a way for the body to replace cells that have a limited life span, such as skin and blood cells; increase tissue mass during periods of growth; and repair tissue, such as in wound healing.

mitosis

57

limited to replicating germ cells and takes place only once in a cell line. It results in the formation of gametes or reproductive cells (i.e., ovum and sperm), each of which has only a single set of 23 chromosomes

meiosis

58

DNA pairs

GC
AT

59

dna coiled in a complex

chromatin

60

dna that consists of proteins

histones

61

Most common cause of cancer
Caused from damage to genes during a person’s life

acquired mutations

62

causative factors of acquired mutations

tobacco, uv radiation, viruses, age

63

Less common
Occurs in a sperm cell or egg cell
Passes directly from a parent to a child at the time of conception

germline mutation

64

These turn a healthy cell into a cancerous cell.

oncogenes

65

Most genetic information of a cell is organized, stored, and retrieved in discrete bundles of DNA called

chromosomes

66

why allopurinol (zyloprim)

helps get rid of uric acid

67

if WBC are elevated

bacterial infection

68

if WBC are lower/ somewhat normal

viral infection

69

healing happens when the wound edges are approximated e.g. by sutures, staples or glue.

primary intention

70

healing takes place when the wound edges cannot be approximated and the wound needs to heal from the bottom.

secondary intention

71

a combination of both the wound cannot be stitched up immediately but it can after a while.

tertiary intention

72

normal wbc count

4,000-12,000

73

decreased levels of wbc

leukopenia

74

increased levels of wbc

leukocytosis

75

neutrophils less than 1500

neutropenia

76

pathogenesis for neutropenia

congenital; from birth

77

kissing disease "oral transmission"

infectious mononucleosis

78

what causes infectious mononucleosis

Epstein-Barr virus in the herpes family.

79

absolute neutrophil count

% neutrophils + % bands * WBC

80

severe neutropenia

less than 500

81

african descent
middle eastern people
it is normal for these individuals to have lower neutrophil accounts

benign ethnic neutropenia

82

Second most common blood cancer
Cancer of the leukocytes

leukemia

83

Affects primarily children
Responds well to therapy
Good prognosis

acute lymphoblastic leukemia

84

Affects primarily adults
Responds fairly well to treatment
Prognosis somewhat worse than that of acute lymphoblastic leukemia

acute myeloid leukemia

85

Affects primarily adults
Responds poorly to therapy, yet most patients live many years after diagnosis

Chronic lymphoid leukemia

86

Affects primarily adults
Responds poorly to chemotherapy, but the prognosis is improved with allogeneic bone marrow transplant

Chronic myeloid leukemia

87

Cancers affect lymphatic system
Most common hematologic cancer in the US

lymphomas

88

Solid tumors with the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells

hodgkins lymphoma ; curable

89

more common of the two lymphomas

non hodgkins lymphoma

90

Excessive numbers of abnormal plasma cells in the bone marrow, crowding the blood-forming cells and causing Bence Jones proteins to be excreted in the urine

multiple myeloma

91

Bone destruction leads to hypercalcemia and pathologic fractures

multiple myeloma

92

Stoppage of blood flow

hemostasis

93

normal platelet range

150,000 to 350,000

94

X-linked recessive bleeding disorder

hemophilia A

95

Deficiency or abnormality of clotting factor VIII

hemophilia A

96

Most common hereditary bleeding disorder
Decreased platelet adhesion and aggregation

von willebrands disease

97

treatment of von willebrands disease

desmopressin

98

Widespread coagulation followed by massive bleeding because of the depletion of clotting factors

disseminated intravascular coagulation DIC

99

Hypocoagulation resulting from an autoimmune destruction of platelets

Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia Purpura

100

platelets

less than 20,000

101

DIC initial problem

clotting first then give heparin then they bleed out

102

5 stages of hemostasis

vessel spasm
formation of platelet plug
blood coagulation
clot retraction
clot dissolution

103

Abnormal erythrocytes carry less oxygen and clog vessels, causing hypoxia and tissue ischemia.

sickle cell anemia

104

medications for sickle cell

hydrea

105

Production of erythrocytes

erythropoiesis
occurs in bone marrow

106

Results from a decreased number of erythrocytes, reduction of hemoglobin, or presence of abnormal hemoglobin

anemia

107

Excessive erythrocyte destruction

hemolytic anemia

108

what are the causes of hemolytic anemia

idiopathic, autoimmune, genetics,

109

Vitamin B12 deficiency usually caused by a lack of intrinsic factor.

pernicious anemia

110

Bone marrow depression of all blood cells (pancytopenia).

aplastic anemia

111

can cross over the blood brain barrier

leukemia

112

test will be positive for the philadelphia chromosome

CHRONIC MYELOGENOUS LEUKEMIA

113

what is CATS

convulsions, arrhythmia, tetany, stridor/spasms

114

signs of hypocalcemia

chvostek’s sign (cheek bone), trousseau sign (“drawing of his hand”)

115

diagnosis for pernicious anemia

schillings test

116

neonates hemoglobin helps prevent what

sickle cell anemia

117

hormone-like growth factor

cytokines

118

complications of multiple myeloma

hypercalcemia; high levels of calcium low levels of phosphorus

119

cardiac output

heart rate x stroke volume

120

heart rate

60-100

121

stroke volume

60-70

122

cardiac output

blood per min 4-8L

123

premature aging syndrome don’t see until late teens

werner syndrome

124

premature aging syndrome thats a genetic disorder

hutchinson gilford

125

enlargement of the heart

cardiomyopathy

126

barrett cells and metaplasia

GERD- acid causes cells to change into barrett cells which help with the inflammatory process (heal those); be barrett cells can be pre cancerous

127

why do people who smoke have high bp

nicotine causes vasoconstriction so blood doesnt circulate well

128

cardiac meds given can cause

barrett cells too; because it paralyzes sphincter

129

Sorts, chemically modifies, and packages proteins produced on the RER

golgi complex

130

assistance of a carrier but no energy needed

facilitated diffusion

131

a substance from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration …against a concentration gradient ENERGY!!!

active transport

132

chronic pain last longer than

3 months

133

mediator in the inflammatory process

nitric oxide

134

when can I give as a nurse that has the same effect of nitric oxide

nitro glycerin

135

mast cells give off

histamine

136

anc

wbc * neutrophil count. less than 500 BAD

137

tells us the maternity of neutrophils

absolute neutrophil count 1500

138

assessing for SIRS systemic inflammatory response

Wbc between 4-12
heart rate greater than 90
temp 36-38C
respiratory rate greater than 20

139

cytokines help with

growth, function, and differentiation of a cell